Wasserstoffwirtschaft 2023-2033: Produktion, Speicherung, Vertrieb und Anwendungen: IDTechEx

The global low-carbon hydrogen market is expected to reach US$130B by 2033

Wasserstoffwirtschaft 2023-2033: Produktion, Speicherung, Vertrieb und Anwendungen

Umfassende Überprüfung der Wasserstoff-Wertschöpfungskette. Unternehmensprofile, Technologieanalysen, Hauptakteure und Wasserstoffmarktprognosen.


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IDTechEx projects that the low-carbon hydrogen market will grow substantially over the next decade, reaching US$130 billion by 2033 based on projected production capacities. This report evaluates the necessary components to foster the growth of the hydrogen economy, offering a comprehensive review of the entire value chain.It includes technological analyses of all relevant technologies, techno-economic comparisons, detail on key commercial activities (including projects as well as established and emerging companies), major innovations, and market trends across all value chain components.
 
The hydrogen economy envisions a future energy infrastructure, where low-carbon hydrogen is utilized to decarbonize critical industrial sectors and long-haul transportation while satisfying the increasing demand for low-carbon energy. This economy implies a significant shift in global energy use and industrial processes, with hydrogen technology taking a central role. This transformation will not happen rapidly but there are significant opportunities in developing infrastructure across the whole hydrogen value chain.
 
 
Overview of the hydrogen value chain. Source: IDTechEx
 
For this vision to materialize, various value chain components, including low-carbon hydrogen production, storage, and distribution infrastructure, must align with demand from hydrogen end-use sectors. Like the oil & gas industry, the hydrogen value chain is divided into upstream (production), midstream (storage & transport), and downstream (end-use sectors) elements. Each of these hydrogen value chain components brings its own technical and socio-economic challenges.
 
Low-Carbon Hydrogen Production
At present, over 95% of the world's hydrogen comes from fossil fuel-based grey and black hydrogen produced by steam methane reforming and coal gasification plants. Thus, many companies worldwide are focused on developing new low-carbon hydrogen production assets, either blue (natural gas reforming with CO2 emissions captured) or green (water electrolysis powered by renewable energy). These projects are located near industrial users, often in industrial zones with many potential users, which allows for future expansion as these sectors begin to decarbonize.
 
IDTechEx projects that the low-carbon hydrogen market will grow substantially over the next decade, reaching US$130 billion by 2033 based on projected production capacities. Yet, the upstream is only one part of the value chain that needs to be developed. While most acknowledge the need for substantial production infrastructure, many underestimate the need for a vast midstream (storage & distribution) infrastructure to connect the upstream and downstream assets.
 
Hydrogen Storage & Distribution
 
Overview of hydrogen storage & distribution methods covered in the report. Source: IDTechEx
 
One of the primary challenges with hydrogen, despite its excellent energy characteristics (energy density of 120 MJ/kg), is its complicated storage and transportation due to its extremely low density (0.084 kg/m3) at ambient conditions. Large volumes of hydrogen must be compressed to high pressures (100 to 700 bars) or liquefied at cryogenic temperatures (boiling point of -253°C) to store adequate amounts.
 
Although these methods are the most commercially and technologically mature, they have significant drawbacks. They consume considerable amounts of energy, thus reducing the effective energy content of the hydrogen. Compression uses around 10-30% of the hydrogen's original energy content, depending on the pressure. Liquefaction is even more energy-intensive, consuming 30-40% of the hydrogen's energy content. These factors considerably affect applications in mobility and energy storage by drastically reducing overall round trip energy efficiency. Furthermore, safety risks are associated with compressed gas storage, and liquid H2 storage has boil-off issues, leading to some stored hydrogen being wasted. These issues make transportation, especially internationally, expensive, and inefficient.
 
Promising alternatives for stationary storage include metal hydride systems for small scale storage and underground storage (like salt caverns) for large scale diurnal or seasonal storage. For transportation, pipelines will play a significant role in connecting production to end-use. Several worldwide players are developing new pure H2 pipelines, with some looking to repurpose existing natural gas pipelines. Ammonia and liquid organic hydrogen carriers (LOHCs) are considered promising, especially for international transport, as they can leverage existing chemical and petrochemical transport infrastructure. The report provides detailed analyses and comparisons of these storage and distribution methods.
 
End-Use Sectors for Low-Carbon Hydrogen & Hydrogen Fuel Cells
 
 
Overview of hydrogen end-use sectors and fuel cell technologies covered in the report. Source: IDTechEx
 
Hydrogen will play a significant role in decarbonizing industries where it is conventionally used, including refining and the production of ammonia and methanol. These sectors will decarbonize primarily by replacing grey hydrogen with blue and green hydrogen. Another promising sector is steelmaking, where hydrogen can serve as a reducing gas to produce direct reduced iron (DRI). Large steelmakers consider this process as the future of sustainable steel as it will eventually replace the carbon-intensive blast furnace process. Emerging industrial uses of hydrogen include bio- and synfuel production as well as power and heat applications (energy storage, combined heat and power generation, heating for residential/commercial and industrial sectors).
 
Hydrogen also offers an alternative to electrification in fuel cell mobility sectors. Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are gaining traction worldwide, particularly in Asia, with the increasing development of refueling infrastructure and new vehicle concepts for light-, medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. Long-haul transport sectors, including marine, rail, and aviation, also aim to use hydrogen fuel cell propulsion systems. All these sectors will require a combination of fuel cells, suitable hydrogen storage methods, and efficient integration of balance of plant components to operate efficiently.
 
The report provides technological analysis, opportunities for hydrogen integration and associated challenges, commercial activities, as well as key innovations for each end-use sector outlined above. Hydrogen demand from each sector is presented in the hydrogen demand market forecast.
 
In addition, the report offers an overview of fuel cells, mainly proton exchange membrane (PEMFC) and solid oxide (SOFC), as well as alternative technologies, such as methanol and molten carbonate fuel cells. Technological analysis, commercial developments, key players, and comparisons of fuel cell technologies are also offered.
 
Key takeaways from this report
This report provides an overview of the entire hydrogen value chain, drawing on IDTechEx's extensive knowledge across many aspects of the sector. Covering hydrogen production, storage, distribution, fuel cells and end-use applications, the report provides:
 
  • An introduction and motivation for the hydrogen economy.
  • Recent policy developments in the hydrogen industry.
  • Discussion of key trends in the hydrogen industry.
  • Analysis of underlying technologies across all value chain components, including hydrogen production (e.g. electrolyzers), storage (e.g. metal hydrides), distribution (e.g. pipelines) and end-use sectors (e.g. sustainable steelmaking).
  • Techno-economic comparisons and benchmarking of hydrogen production, storage and distribution methods.
  • Recent innovations and new technologies across all value chain components.
  • Potential decarbonization pathways for hydrogen end-use sectors.
  • Commercial activities including key players and projects under development.
  • SWOT analyses and key takeaways from various parts of the value chain.
  • Assessments of technical and commercial readiness.
  • Granular 10-year market forecasts for hydrogen demand by applications (7 sectors), hydrogen production by source(grey, blue and green) and the hydrogen market (grey, blue and green).
  • 28 company profiles covering established and emerging players across various parts of the value chain.
 
IDTechEx's hydrogen research portfolio
This report includes entirely new content on storage, distribution and end-use sectors and draws on IDTechEx's existing research in hydrogen production, fuel cells and mobility sectors. Further information on low-carbon hydrogen production, fuel cells and fuel cell mobility sectors can be found in these reports:
 
Report MetricsDetails
CAGRThe global low-carbon hydrogen market will grow at a CAGR of 41% reaching US$130B by 2033.
Forecast Period2023 - 2033
Forecast UnitsMillion tonnes of hydrogen per annum (Mtpa), US$ billions (US$B)
Regions CoveredWorldwide
Segments CoveredHydrogen demand: refining, ammonia, methanol, iron & steel (DRI), fuel cell mobility (cars, marine, rail), combined heat and power (CHP) generation, alternative fuels Hydrogen production: grey & black, blue and green hydrogen Hydrogen market: grey & black, blue and green hydrogen
Analyst access from IDTechEx
All report purchases include up to 30 minutes telephone time with an expert analyst who will help you link key findings in the report to the business issues you're addressing. This needs to be used within three months of purchasing the report.
Further information
If you have any questions about this report, please do not hesitate to contact our report team at research@IDTechEx.com or call one of our sales managers:

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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1.Hydrogen economy and its key components
1.1.1.Hydrogen economy development needs (1/2)
1.1.2.Hydrogen economy development needs (2/2)
1.1.3.The future hydrogen value chain
1.1.4.Hydrogen production: green, blue & turquoise
1.1.5.National hydrogen strategies
1.1.6.The colors of hydrogen
1.1.7.Removing CO2 emissions from hydrogen production
1.1.8.Electrolyzer systems overview
1.1.9.Pros and cons of electrolyzer technologies
1.1.10.The focus on PEM electrolyzers
1.1.11.The push towards gigafactories
1.1.12.Global electrolyzer players
1.1.13.Important competing factors for the green H2 market
1.1.14.The challenges in green hydrogen production
1.1.15.The case for blue hydrogen production
1.1.16.Blue hydrogen production - general overview
1.1.17.Main blue hydrogen technologies
1.1.18.Turquoise hydrogen from methane pyrolysis
1.1.19.Blue hydrogen production value chain
1.1.20.Value chain example: ATR + CCUS
1.1.21.Leading blue hydrogen companies
1.1.22.Blue H2 process comparison summary & key takeaways
1.1.23.Hydrogen production processes by stage of development
1.1.24.Hydrogen storage & distribution
1.1.25.Overview of hydrogen storage & distribution
1.1.26.Problems with compressed & cryogenic storage & distribution
1.1.27.H2 storage & distribution technical comparison
1.1.28.Storage technology pros & cons comparison
1.1.29.Distribution technology pros & cons comparison
1.1.30.Storage technology comparison
1.1.31.Distribution technology comparison
1.1.32.Hydrogen storage methods by stage of development
1.1.33.Hydrogen distribution methods by stage of development
1.1.34.Storage cost comparison summary
1.1.35.Distribution cost comparison
1.1.36.Key takeaways from hydrogen storage & distribution
1.1.37.Fuel cells
1.1.38.Introduction to fuel cells
1.1.39.Overview of fuel cell technologies
1.1.40.Comparison of fuel cell technologies
1.1.41.Fuel cells company landscape
1.2.Hydrogen end-use sectors
1.2.1.Hydrogen end-use sectors
1.2.2.Drivers for improving hydrogen cost-competitiveness
1.2.3.Key takeaways for hydrogen use in refining
1.2.4.Key takeaways for hydrogen use in low-carbon ammonia production
1.2.5.Key takeaways for hydrogen use in low-carbon methanol production
1.2.6.Key takeaways for hydrogen use in alternative fuel production
1.2.7.Key takeaways for hydrogen use in sustainable steelmaking
1.2.8.Key takeaways for hydrogen use in power & heat generation
1.2.9.Key takeaways for hydrogen use in FCEVs
1.2.10.Key takeaways for hydrogen use in the maritime sector
1.2.11.Key takeaways for hydrogen use in rail transport
1.2.12.Key takeaways from hydrogen aviation
1.3.IDTechEx's outlook on the hydrogen economy
1.3.1.Hydrogen demand forecast
1.3.2.Hydrogen production forecast
1.3.3.Hydrogen market forecast (1/2)
1.3.4.Hydrogen market forecast (2/2)
1.3.5.IDTechEx's outlook on low-carbon hydrogen
2.INTRODUCTION TO THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY
2.1.The need for unprecedented CO2 emission reductions
2.2.Hydrogen is gaining momentum
2.3.Hydrogen economy and its key components
2.4.Production: the colors of hydrogen (1/2)
2.5.Production: the colors of hydrogen (2/2)
2.6.Storage & distribution
2.7.End-use: which sectors could hydrogen decarbonize? (1/2)
2.8.End-use: which sectors could hydrogen decarbonize? (2/2)
2.9.Hydrogen economy development needs (1/2)
2.10.Hydrogen economy development needs (2/2)
3.GLOBAL HYDROGEN POLICIES
3.1.Overview
3.1.1.2021-2022 Geopolitics
3.1.2.National hydrogen strategies (1/2)
3.1.3.National hydrogen strategies (2/2)
3.1.4.Policy developments (1/3)
3.1.5.Policy developments (2/3)
3.1.6.Policy developments (3/3)
3.1.7.Global policy impacts
3.1.8.European Union (EU) hydrogen strategy
3.1.9.EU's hydrogen strategy
3.1.10.EU's hydrogen strategy - focuses & key actions
3.1.11.EU's hydrogen strategy - investments
3.1.12.REPowerEU, ES Joint Declaration & RED revision
3.1.13.Clean Hydrogen Partnership
3.1.14.National strategies vs EU strategy
3.1.15.National strategy example - Netherlands
3.2.USA hydrogen strategy
3.2.1.US' hydrogen strategy
3.2.2.Tax credit changes in the US IRA fostering blue hydrogen
3.2.3.The impact of IRA tax credits on the cost of hydrogen
3.3.UK hydrogen strategy
3.3.1.UK's hydrogen strategy
3.3.2.The UK's CCUS clusters for blue hydrogen
3.3.3.UK's CCUS clusters: East Coast Cluster
3.3.4.UK's CCUS clusters: HyNet North West Cluster
3.4.Other countries' hydrogen strategies
3.4.1.Canada's hydrogen strategy
3.4.2.China's hydrogen strategy
3.4.3.Japan's hydrogen strategy
3.4.4.South Korea's hydrogen strategy
3.5.Hydrogen certification
3.5.1.Why is hydrogen certification needed?
3.5.2.Elements for a successful certification scheme
3.5.3.Emissions system boundaries for blue & green H2
3.5.4.Landscape of hydrogen certification schemes (1/2)
3.5.5.Landscape of hydrogen certification schemes (2/2)
3.5.6.Voluntary certification standards
3.5.7.Mandatory certification standards
3.5.8.The potential role of carbon pricing in the hydrogen economy
4.LOW-CARBON HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
4.1.Overview
4.1.1.State of the hydrogen industry
4.1.2.The colors of hydrogen
4.1.3.The colors of hydrogen
4.1.4.Traditional hydrogen production
4.1.5.Removing CO2 emissions from hydrogen production
4.1.6.Hydrogen production processes by stage of development
4.1.7.Recent development in the hydrogen market
4.2.Green hydrogen
4.2.1.What is green hydrogen?
4.2.2.Types of water electrolyzer
4.2.3.Electrolyzer systems overview
4.2.4.Typical green hydrogen plant layout
4.2.5.Alkaline water electrolyzer (AWE)
4.2.6.AWE system design example
4.2.7.Anion exchange membrane electrolyzer (AEMEL)
4.2.8.Proton exchange membrane electrolyzer (PEMEL)
4.2.9.PEMEL system design example
4.2.10.The focus on PEM electrolyzers
4.2.11.Plug-and-play & customizable PEMEL systems
4.2.12.AWE is still a popular technology
4.2.13.Battolyser - battery & electrolyzer system
4.2.14.Solid oxide electrolyzer (SOEL)
4.2.15.SOEL systems: a substitute for AWE?
4.2.16.SOEC system design example
4.2.17.Electrolyzer degradation
4.2.18.Considerations for choosing electrolyzer technology
4.2.19.Pros and cons of electrolyzer technologies
4.2.20.Electrolyzer improvements
4.2.21.Electrolyzer market overview
4.2.22.Electrolyzer overview
4.2.23.Global electrolyzer players
4.2.24.Electrolyzer vendors by region
4.2.25.Market addressed by EL manufacturer
4.2.26.The push towards gigafactories
4.2.27.Electrolyzer suppliers partnering with project developers
4.2.28.Other projects discussed at WHS 2023
4.2.29.Future trend of the electrolyzer market
4.2.30.Important competing factors for the green H2 market
4.2.31.Drivers and restraints for green hydrogen
4.2.32.The challenges in green hydrogen production
4.3.Blue & turquoise hydrogen
4.3.1.The case for blue hydrogen production
4.3.2.Key drivers for blue hydrogen development
4.3.3.Blue hydrogen supply chain
4.3.4.Carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS)
4.3.5.Blue hydrogen production - general overview
4.3.6.Main blue hydrogen technologies
4.3.7.Overview of production methods covered
4.3.8.Autothermal reforming (ATR) - a promising blue H2 technology
4.3.9.Autothermal reforming (ATR) - a promising blue H2 technology
4.3.10.Turquoise hydrogen from methane pyrolysis
4.3.11.Methane pyrolysis variations
4.3.12.Pre- vs post-combustion CO2 capture for blue hydrogen
4.3.13.Carbon capture technologies
4.3.14.Key considerations in designing blue hydrogen processes
4.3.15.Novel processes for blue hydrogen production
4.3.16.Pros & cons of production technologies (1/3)
4.3.17.Pros & cons of production technologies (2/3)
4.3.18.Pros & cons of production technologies (3/3)
4.3.19.Blue H2 process comparison summary & key takeaways
4.3.20.Blue hydrogen production value chain
4.3.21.SMR + CCUS value chain
4.3.22.POX + CCUS value chain
4.3.23.ATR + CCUS value chain
4.3.24.Methane pyrolysis activities around the world
4.3.25.CCUS company landscape
4.3.26.The UK will be a leading blue hydrogen hub
4.3.27.Leading blue hydrogen companies
4.3.28.Potential business model for blue hydrogen projects
4.3.29.Is blue hydrogen production innovative?
4.3.30.Key innovations in blue hydrogen technology (1/2)
4.3.31.Key innovations in blue hydrogen technology (2/2)
4.3.32.Innovation example - more compact units
4.3.33.Technological challenges & opportunities for innovation
4.3.34.Potential key challenges with blue hydrogen
4.3.35.CCUS technological challenges & opportunities for innovation
5.HYDROGEN STORAGE & DISTRIBUTION
5.1.Overview
5.1.1.Motivation for hydrogen storage & distribution
5.1.2.Energy density of hydrogen
5.1.3.Problems with compressed & cryogenic storage & distribution
5.1.4.Need for alternative storage & distribution
5.1.5.Motivation & challenges with pipeline transmission
5.1.6.Overview of storage methods
5.1.7.Overview of distribution methods
5.1.8.Key takeaways from hydrogen storage & distribution
5.2.Comparison of hydrogen storage & distribution methods
5.2.1.H2 storage & distribution technical comparison (1/2)
5.2.2.H2 storage & distribution technical comparison (2/2)
5.2.3.Storage technology pros & cons comparison
5.2.4.Distribution technology pros & cons comparison
5.2.5.Storage technology comparison
5.2.6.Distribution technology comparison
5.2.7.Hydrogen storage methods by stage of development
5.2.8.Hydrogen distribution methods by stage of development
5.2.9.Storage cost comparison for stationary storage
5.2.10.Storage cost comparison summary
5.2.11.Distribution cost comparison
5.3.Compressed gas storage & distribution
5.3.1.Key takeaways from compressed hydrogen storage
5.3.2.Compressed hydrogen storage
5.3.3.Compressed storage vessel classification
5.3.4.Reduction in compressed cylinder weight
5.3.5.Stationary storage systems
5.3.6.Compressed tube trailers
5.3.7.FCEV onboard hydrogen tanks
5.3.8.Type V hydrogen storage
5.3.9.Balance of plant (BOP) components
5.3.10.Hydrogen compression equipment
5.3.11.Bulk storage & distribution system suppliers
5.3.12.Onboard FCEV tank suppliers
5.3.13.Stationary & onboard FCEV storage suppliers
5.4.Hydrogen liquefaction, LH2 storage & distribution
5.4.1.Key takeaways for H2 liquefaction, LH2 storage & distribution
5.4.2.Liquid hydrogen (LH2)
5.4.3.Ortho-para conversion (OPC)
5.4.4.Types of hydrogen liquefaction cycles & refrigerants
5.4.5.Hydrogen liquefaction - helium Brayton cycle
5.4.6.Hydrogen liquefaction - hydrogen Claude cycle
5.4.7.State-of-the-art liquefaction plants
5.4.8.Cost of LH2 production
5.4.9.Improving hydrogen liquefaction
5.4.10.Commercial liquefaction units
5.4.11.LH2 storage tanks
5.4.12.Spherical LH2 storage vessels
5.4.13.LH2 tanks for onboard FCEV storage
5.4.14.Cryo-compressed hydrogen storage (CcH2)
5.4.15.BMW'S Cryo-compressed storage tank
5.4.16.LH2 transport trailers
5.4.17.Hydrogen Energy Supply Chain (HESC) - Australia & Japan
5.4.18.Liquefied hydrogen tanker
5.4.19.LH2 loading, receiving & bunkering facilities
5.4.20.Components needed for loading/unloading of LH2
5.4.21.Challenges with LH2 transport
5.4.22.Hydrogen liquefaction plant suppliers
5.4.23.Cryogenic hydrogen storage suppliers
5.4.24.Hydrogen liquefaction, LH2 storage & distribution SWOT
5.5.Underground hydrogen storage (UHS)
5.5.1.Key takeaways for underground hydrogen storage
5.5.2.Introduction to underground hydrogen storage
5.5.3.Salt caverns
5.5.4.Salt cavern formation by solution mining
5.5.5.Porous rock formations
5.5.6.Porous rock formations - oil & gas fields
5.5.7.Porous rock formations - aquifers
5.5.8.Lined rock caverns for H2, NH3 & LOHC storage
5.5.9.UHS mechanism & key storage parameters
5.5.10.Storage mechanism & surface facilities for UHS
5.5.11.Major cost components of UHS
5.5.12.Potential use cases for UHS
5.5.13.Pros & cons of salt cavern storage
5.5.14.Pros & cons of depleted oil & gas fields
5.5.15.Pros & cons of aquifers
5.5.16.Pros & cons of line rock caverns (LRCs)
5.5.17.Current sites used for UHS
5.5.18.Salt cavern project examples
5.5.19.Commercial project example: H2CAST Etzel
5.5.20.Porous rock & LRC projects
5.5.21.Company landscape for UHS
5.5.22.Comparison of UHS methods
5.5.23.Underground hydrogen storage SWOT analysis
5.6.Solid-state storage: hydrides
5.6.1.Summary of solid-state hydrogen storage
5.6.2.Introduction to solid-state hydrogen storage
5.6.3.Hydrides for hydrogen storage
5.6.4.Hydride classification
5.6.5.Thermodynamic & kinetic considerations for metal hydrides
5.6.6.The need for room temperature alloys
5.6.7.Common room temperature alloy types & examples
5.6.8.Complex hydrides (1/2)
5.6.9.Complex hydrides (2/2)
5.6.10.Complex hydride case study - Electriq Global
5.6.11.Comparison of hydride materials
5.6.12.Typical metal hydride absorption/desorption cycle
5.6.13.Integration of metal hydrides into storage tanks
5.6.14.Metal hydride storage system design
5.6.15.Commercial system case study: GKN Hydrogen
5.6.16.Potential hydrogen storage applications for metal hydrides
5.6.17.Key players in hydride storage systems
5.6.18.Company landscape for hydrides
5.7.Solid-state storage: novel materials & methods
5.7.1.Storage by reduction of iron oxide - AMBARtec case study
5.7.2.Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)
5.7.3.Zeolites
5.7.4.Other novel materials
5.8.Hydrogen carriers: ammonia, methanol & LOHC
5.8.1.Summary of hydrogen carriers
5.8.2.Introduction to hydrogen carriers
5.8.3.Methanol as a hydrogen carrier
5.8.4.Supply chain using ammonia
5.8.5.Supply chain considerations for ammonia
5.8.6.Options for green & blue NH3 production
5.8.7.Ammonia cracking - a key missing component
5.8.8.Membranes in ammonia cracking
5.8.9.Japan's ammonia supply chain initiatives
5.8.10.Energy efficiency concerns for ammonia
5.8.11.NH3 supply chain efforts
5.8.12.Supply chain using LOHCs
5.8.13.Supply chain considerations for LOHCs
5.8.14.Critical considerations in developing LOHC systems
5.8.15.Examples of LOHC systems
5.8.16.SPERA Hydrogen - Chiyoda's LOHC project
5.8.17.Direct MCH synthesis - ENEOS Corporation
5.8.18.LOHC supply chain efforts
5.8.19.Comparison of hydrogen carrier properties
5.8.20.Comparison of hydrogen carriers to LH2
5.8.21.Pros & cons of hydrogen carriers
5.8.22.Cost comparison of hydrogen carriers
5.9.Hydrogen pipeline transmission, blending & deblending
5.9.1.Hydrogen pipelines summary
5.9.2.Introduction to hydrogen pipelines
5.9.3.Current state of hydrogen pipelines
5.9.4.Hydrogen pipeline infrastructure
5.9.5.Blending of H2 into natural gas - HENG (1/2)
5.9.6.Blending of H2 into natural gas - HENG (2/2)
5.9.7.Hydrogen gas blending system
5.9.8.Hydrogen deblending from HENG (1/3)
5.9.9.Hydrogen deblending from HENG (2/3)
5.9.10.Hydrogen deblending from HENG (3/3)
5.9.11.Deblending: Linde Engineering & Evonik
5.9.12.Emerging membranes for deblending
5.9.13.Pros & cons of HENG
5.9.14.Alloys for hydrogen pipelines & components
5.9.15.Composite hydrogen pipelines
5.9.16.Hydrogen pipeline construction
5.9.17.Above ground installations for H2 pipelines
5.9.18.Hydrogen compression stations (1/2)
5.9.19.Hydrogen compression stations (2/2)
5.9.20.Challenges in repurposing natural gas pipelines
5.9.21.Pressure considerations in H2 pipelines
5.9.22.Estimated cost of new hydrogen pipelines
5.9.23.European Hydrogen Backbone (EHB)
5.9.24.H2 pipeline & blending activities
5.9.25.Case study project: HyNet North West Hydrogen Pipeline
5.9.26.Company landscape for pipelines
5.9.27.Hydrogen pipelines SWOT analysis
5.10.Materials for hydrogen storage & distribution vessels
5.10.1.Types of hydrogen embrittlement
5.10.2.Hydrogen embrittlement & mechanisms
5.10.3.Factors influenced H2 embrittlement
5.10.4.Effect of impurities on H2 embrittlement
5.10.5.Hydrogen embrittlement & compatible metal alloys
5.10.6.Alloys for hydrogen pipelines & components
5.10.7.Composite hydrogen pipelines
5.10.8.Standards for pressure vessels
5.10.9.Material & manufacturing considerations for pressure vessels
5.10.10.Liner materials for Type III & IV vessels
5.10.11.Fiber materials for Type III & IV vessels
5.10.12.Materials for cryogenic vessels
5.10.13.Composite cryogenic vessels
6.HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS
6.1.Introduction to fuel cells
6.1.1.Overview of fuel cell technologies
6.1.2.Comparison of fuel cell technologies
6.1.3.Fuel cells company landscape
6.2.PEM fuel cells (PEMFCs)
6.2.1.What is a PEM fuel cell?
6.2.2.Major components for PEM fuel cells
6.2.3.PEMFC assembly and materials
6.2.4.Membrane assembly terminology
6.2.5.High temperature PEMFC (1/2)
6.2.6.High temperature PEMFC (2/2)
6.2.7.Transport applications for fuel cells
6.2.8.PEMFC market players
6.2.9.Applications for fuel cells and major players
6.2.10.BPP: Purpose and form factor
6.2.11.Materials for BPPs: Graphite vs metal
6.2.12.GDL: Purpose and form factor
6.2.13.Membrane: Purpose and form factor
6.2.14.Water management in the FC
6.2.15.Market leaders for membrane materials
6.2.16.Catalyst: Purpose and form factor
6.2.17.Trends for fuel cell catalysts
6.2.18.Balance-of-plant for PEM fuel cells
6.2.19.Fuel cells within the FCEV market
6.2.20.Hydrogen composition for PEMFCs
6.3.Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)
6.3.1.SOFC working principle
6.3.2.SOFC assembly and materials
6.3.3.Electrolyte
6.3.4.Anode
6.3.5.Cathode
6.3.6.Interconnect for planar SOFCs
6.3.7.Tubular SOFC
6.3.8.Polarization losses
6.3.9.SOFC variations
6.3.10.Fuel choices for SOFCs
6.3.11.Why now?
6.3.12.Overview of key players
6.3.13.Main applications for SOFCs
6.4.Alternative fuel cell technologies & comparison
6.4.1.Alternative fuel cell technologies
6.4.2.Alkaline fuel cell (AFC)
6.4.3.AFC electrolyte (1/2)
6.4.4.AFC electrolyte (2/2)
6.4.5.Comparison of AFC technologies
6.4.6.AFC electrodes
6.4.7.Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC)
6.4.8.DMFC drawbacks (1/3)
6.4.9.DMFC drawbacks (2/3)
6.4.10.DMFC drawbacks (3/3)
6.4.11.Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC)
6.4.12.PAFC electrolyte
6.4.13.PAFC electrodes & catalyst
6.4.14.PAFC stack
6.4.15.PAFC cooling system
6.4.16.PAFC cell performance
6.4.17.Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC)
6.4.18.MCFCs can use syngas
6.4.19.Fuel reforming in MCFCs
6.4.20.MCFC electrolyte
6.4.21.MCFC anode
6.4.22.MCFC cathode
6.4.23.MCFC components
7.END-USE SECTORS FOR HYDROGEN
7.1.Overview
7.1.1.Which sectors could hydrogen decarbonize?
7.1.2.Power-to-X (P2X)
7.1.3.Where can low-carbon hydrogen be used?
7.1.4.Current & emerging applications for hydrogen
7.1.5.Which applications are the most competitive? (1/2)
7.1.6.Which applications are the most competitive? (2/2)
7.1.7.Drivers for improving hydrogen cost-competitiveness
7.1.8.Conventional H2 applications
7.2.Decarbonizing conventional hydrogen applications: refining
7.2.1.Key takeaways for hydrogen use in refining
7.2.2.Hydrogen uses in petrochemical refining (1/2)
7.2.3.Hydrogen uses in petrochemical refining (2/2)
7.2.4.How do refineries source hydrogen?
7.2.5.Current consumption in the refining sector
7.2.6.Where can low-carbon H2 integrate into refining?
7.2.7.Drivers for H2 capacity growth in refining
7.2.8.Combustion of fossil fuels in a refinery
7.2.9.Essar's hydrogen-fired furnace
7.2.10.REFHYNE project - green H2 in refining (1/2)
7.2.11.REFHYNE project - green H2 in refining (2/2)
7.2.12.Company landscape for H2 use in refining
7.3.Decarbonizing conventional hydrogen applications: ammonia production
7.3.1.Key takeaways for hydrogen use in low-carbon ammonia production
7.3.2.Current state of the ammonia market
7.3.3.The future of the ammonia market
7.3.4.Ammonia production - Haber-Bosch process
7.3.5.Options for green & blue NH3 production
7.3.6.New green ammonia plant designs
7.3.7.Direct NH3 production by N2 electrolysis
7.3.8.Cost competitiveness of blue & green NH3
7.3.9.Pros & cons of NH3 plant decarbonization options
7.3.10.Drivers for H2 capacity growth in ammonia
7.3.11.Commercial efforts in low-carbon ammonia
7.3.12.Horisont Energi - blue & green NH3 projects
7.3.13.Company landscape for H2 use in ammonia
7.4.Decarbonizing conventional hydrogen applications: methanol production
7.4.1.Key takeaways for hydrogen use in low-carbon methanol production
7.4.2.Current state of the methanol market
7.4.3.Future methanol applications
7.4.4.Traditional methanol production
7.4.5.Options for blue & green MeOH production
7.4.6.Improved methanol process - Topsoe
7.4.7.E-methanol production options (1/2)
7.4.8.E-methanol production options (2/2)
7.4.9.The need for optimized e-methanol catalysts
7.4.10.Bio-methanol production
7.4.11.Cost parity is a challenge for e-methanol
7.4.12.Pros & cons of main MeOH plant decarbonization options
7.4.13.Drivers for H2 capacity growth in MeOH
7.4.14.Commercial low-carbon methanol efforts
7.5.Alternative fuel production
7.5.1.Key takeaways for hydrogen use in alternative fuel production
7.5.2.Alternative fuels scope
7.5.3.Biofuel generations
7.5.4.Biofuel technology overview
7.5.5.Role of hydrogen in synthetic fuel & chemical production
7.5.6.2nd generation biofuel production processes
7.5.7.Biojet and sustainable aviation fuel (SAF)
7.5.8.E-fuels
7.5.9.E-fuel production pathway overview
7.5.10.Routes to e-fuel production
7.5.11.Applications for e-fuels
7.5.12.Non-fossil alternative fuel development stages
7.5.13.Comparing alternative fuels
7.5.14.Comparing alternative fuels - SWOT
7.5.15.E-fuel players
7.5.16.Biofuel supply chain
7.5.17.E-fuel supply chain
7.5.18.Renewable diesel player map
7.6.Sustainable steel production using hydrogen
7.6.1.Key takeaways for hydrogen use in sustainable steelmaking
7.6.2.Introduction to sustainable steel production
7.6.3.Current steelmaking landscape (1/2)
7.6.4.Current steelmaking landscape (2/2)
7.6.5.Steelmaking process options
7.6.6.The most common routes to steelmaking
7.6.7.Traditional BF-BOF process
7.6.8.DRI-EAF process
7.6.9.Production, energy use & CO2 emissions by process
7.6.10.Scrap-EAF process & the need for net-zero DRI-EAF
7.6.11.Decarbonized process options
7.6.12.Opportunities for integration of H2 technologies into steelmaking
7.6.13.Circored - fluidized bed H2-DRI process
7.6.14.H2-DRI-EAF using green H2
7.6.15.The need for carbon & lime in the EAF
7.6.16.Potential major challenges for H2-DRI-EAF
7.6.17.Techno-economics of a H2-DRI-EAF plant
7.6.18.Energy consumption of plant using H2-DRI
7.6.19.Case study project: HYBRIT
7.6.20.Major steel producers developing H2-DRI-EAF projects
7.6.21.Company landscape for H2 use in steelmaking
7.6.22.H2 in sustainable steel production SWOT
7.7.Power & heat applications
7.7.1.Key takeaways for hydrogen use in power & heat generation
7.7.2.Hydrogen in power and heating applications
7.7.3.Hydrogen in power-to-gas energy storage for renewables
7.7.4.Battolyser - battery & electrolyzer system
7.7.5.Comparison of energy storage methods
7.7.6.Inefficiencies of energy storage with H2
7.7.7.Commercial activity in H2 for energy storage
7.7.8.Off-grid power using hydrogen
7.7.9.Companies developing off-grid solutions
7.7.10.Combined heat & power (CHP) generation
7.7.11.Why are hydrogen CHP plants needed?
7.7.12.Companies & commercial efforts in hydrogen CHP
7.7.13.Main applications for SOFCs
7.7.14.Classification of fuels by carbon emissions
7.7.15.SOFCs for Utilities
7.7.16.Hydrogen in homes & heating appliances - THyGA
7.7.17.Hydrogen in homes & heating appliances - Cadent Gas
7.7.18.Hydrogen in industrial combustion systems
7.8.Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs)
7.8.1.Key takeaways for hydrogen use in FCEVs
7.8.2.Outlook for fuel cell cars
7.8.3.Outlook for fuel cell LCVs
7.8.4.Outlook for fuel cell trucks
7.8.5.Outlook for fuel cell buses
7.8.6.Fuel cell passenger cars
7.8.7.Transporting hydrogen to refuelling stations
7.8.8.Fuel cell cars in production
7.8.9.Toyota Mirai 2nd generation
7.8.10.Hyundai NEXO
7.8.11.Light commercial vehicles (LCVs) - Vans
7.8.12.Fuel cell LCVs
7.8.13.Truck Classifications
7.8.14.Heavy duty trucks: BEV or fuel cell?
7.8.15.Fuel cell buses
7.8.16.Main pros & cons of fuel cell buses
7.9.Hydrogen refueling for FCEVs
7.9.1.Hydrogen refueling stations (HRS)
7.9.2.State of hydrogen refueling infrastructure worldwide (1/2)
7.9.3.State of hydrogen refueling infrastructure worldwide (2/2)
7.9.4.Notable commercial efforts in HRS
7.9.5.Alternative hydrogen refueling concepts
7.9.6.Cost of hydrogen at the pump (1/2)
7.9.7.Cost of hydrogen at the pump (2/2)
7.10.Fuel cells in marine applications
7.10.1.Key takeaways for hydrogen use in the maritime sector
7.10.2.Low carbon fuels in the marine sector
7.10.3.Fuel cells technologies for ships
7.10.4.Fuel cell system integration into a ship
7.10.5.Hydrogen fuel cell ship design
7.10.6.SOFC for marine
7.10.7.Bunkering overview
7.10.8.Alternative fuels by technology & vessel
7.10.9.Energy Density Benchmarking of Fuels
7.10.10.Qualitative Benchmarking of Low Carbon Fuels
7.10.11.Efficiency Comparison: Battery, PEMFC, SOFC
7.10.12.LNG, Hydrogen & Ammonia Compared
7.11.Fuel cell trains
7.11.1.Key takeaways for hydrogen use in rail transport
7.11.2.Fuel Cell Train Overview
7.11.3.Fuel Cell Technology Benchmarking for Rail
7.11.4.Fuel Cell Train Operating Modes
7.11.5.Fuel Cell Energy Density Advantage
7.11.6.Range Advantage for Fuel Cell Trains
7.11.7.Rail Fuel Cell Suppliers
7.11.8.Hydrogen Rail History
7.11.9.FC Multiple Unit Summary
7.11.10.Alstom leading the way in FC multiple unit orders
7.11.11.Alstom Coradia iLint schematic
7.11.12.Cummins: fuel cell supplier to Alstom
7.12.Hydrogen aviation
7.12.1.Key takeaways from hydrogen aviation
7.12.2.Decarbonizing aviation
7.12.3.Options for hydrogen use in aviation
7.12.4.Key systems needed for hydrogen aircraft
7.12.5.Example design for fuel cell aircraft
7.12.6.Comparison of technology options
7.12.7.Major challenges hindering hydrogen aviation
7.12.8.Case study: ZeroAvia
7.12.9.Smaller hydrogen FC aircraft: drones & eVTOL
7.12.10.Hydrogen aviation company landscape
8.MARKET FORECASTS
8.1.Forecasting assumptions & methodology
8.2.Hydrogen demand forecast (1/2)
8.3.Hydrogen demand forecast (2/2)
8.4.Hydrogen production forecast (1/2)
8.5.Hydrogen production forecast (2/2)
8.6.Hydrogen market forecast (1/2)
8.7.Hydrogen market forecast (2/2)
8.8.IDTechEx's outlook on low-carbon hydrogen
9.COMPANY PROFILES
9.1.Hydrogen storage & distribution
9.1.1.AMBARtec
9.1.2.Cadent Gas
9.1.3.Chiyoda Corporation
9.1.4.Cryomotive
9.1.5.Electriq Global
9.1.6.ENEOS Corporation
9.1.7.GKN Hydrogen
9.1.8.Hexagon Purus
9.1.9.Hydrogenious LOHC Technologies
9.1.10.Kawasaki Heavy Industries
9.1.11.Storag Etzel
9.1.12.Storengy
9.2.Hydrogen production
9.2.1.Air Liquide
9.2.2.Air Products
9.2.3.Hazer Group
9.2.4.Johnson Matthey
9.2.5.Monolith
9.2.6.Mote
9.2.7.Shell
9.2.8.Topsoe
9.2.9.Transform Materials
9.3.Hydrogen project developers
9.3.1.Aker Horizons
9.3.2.Equinor
9.3.3.Horisont Energi
9.4.End-users
9.4.1.Atmonia
9.4.2.H2 Green Steel
9.4.3.HYBRIT
9.4.4.Midrex Technologies
 

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Slides 627
Forecasts to 2033
Published Jun 2023
ISBN 9781915514776
 

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