Micro-LED Displays 2021-2031: Technology, Commercialization, Opportunity, Market and Players: IDTechEx

Challenges and opportunities with the drive to reshuffle the supply chain in the next decade

Micro-LED Displays 2021-2031: Technology, Commercialization, Opportunity, Market and Players

Micro-LEDs for AR/VR/MR, TVs, automotive, mobile phones, wearables, tablets, laptops and large video displays, with analysis of technology, supply chain, market, players and opportunities

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After acquisition of LuxVue by Apple in 2014, micro-light emitting diode (MicroLED, or µLED) has become an attracting emissive display technology and pursued by players from various industries. MicroLED displays deliver value propositions such as wide colour gamut, high luminance, low power consumption, excellent stability and long lifetime, wide view angle, high dynamic range, high contrast, fast refresh rate, transparency, seamless connection, sensor integration capability, etc. Some of the value propositions can be provided by alternatives such as LCD, OLED and QD, while one of the strong drivers to develop MicroLED displays are these unique value propositions.
Value propositions of various display technologies. Source: IDTechEx
The first MicroLED commercial product, the Crystal LED display, was launched by Sony, which replaced the traditional packaged LEDs by MicroLED. These small-pitch LED video displays target the to-B market and both the costs and prices are far more expensive than what already exist. Technology immaturity, cost barriers and supply chain incompletion are three major hurdles in large-scale commercialization for MicroLED displays.
With the existing LED industry and the mature display industry, the emerging mass transfer sector is the link to bridge these two industries, and they together can be the enabler to establish a new supply chain. With the basis that current LCD manufacturing is shifting to China due to cost advantage and South Korea is dominating OLED displays, those who can react quick enough to make an important position in the shaped supply chain will seize the next big opportunity. The game is open to conventional LED suppliers, display vendors, component providers, OEMs, integrators, and also welcomes newcomers that can bring technology innovation, material improvement, equipment support, and business model revolution.
To make strategic decisions, both information and insights are required. These include, but are not limited to, technology limitations and capabilities, market status analysis, supply chain interpretation, player activity tracking, and global trend understanding. This report will tackle these aspects accordingly.
To fabricate a MicroLED display, many technologies and processes are involved, such as epitaxy, photolithography, chip fabrication, substrate removal, inspection, mass transfer, bonding and interconnection, testing, repair, backplane, and drive IC, etc. After years of development, some technology difficulties have been solved, while new challenges are placed in front of us. For instance, several years ago, the major efforts were concentrated in die miniaturization, chip design and mass transfer. Recently, more and more players realize a complete understanding of all the processes is the key. Therefore, an increasing number of people put more effort also on technologies such as inspection, repair, driving, image improvement, light management, and high-volume production equipment. This report provides all the major technology choices with detailed introduction, analysis, and comparison. It also shows what important players have offered to the market, and the technologies behind the prototypes/products. The targeted applications cover from micro-displays such as AR/VR/MR, to consumer middle-sized displays like smart phones, TVs, to huge displays, e.g., large video public displays. The corresponding technologies vary from each other. With a deep understanding of each technology, it is possible to understand where we are and where we can go.
With players holding various technologies, they have different entry markets to target. In this report, we have focused on 9 applications to analyse. They are augmented/mixed reality (AR/MR), virtual reality (VR), large video displays, TVs and monitors, automotive displays, mobile phones, smart watches and wearables, tablets and laptops, and emerging displays. A ten-year market forecast is provided based on shipment unit for each application. In addition, an application roadmap is offered with a consideration of different maturity readiness of each application.
As more and more players are plunging into the MicroLED industry, they gradually choose to work with each other directly or in a large network. Several supply chain clusters are formed based on geography, with cross-continental collaboration increasingly common. We also show regional efforts in the report.
All these collaborations indicate that globalization continues to be our future trend. From the display cycle we also know that we are at the merge & consolidation stage, and lots of activities show us the direction of future trends. However, in the meantime, important international events such as the trade war and COVID-19 make our decisions more difficult, resulting in a more complicated picture. We also discussed their impacts in the report, especially their influence on the supply chain.
Objectives of the report:
Technology assessment
− Value propositions, benefits and drawbacks compared with competing technologies.
− Drivers and motivations
− Current status
− Technology breakthroughs
− Technology challenges and roadmap to tackle these issues.
− Activities of research institutes, universities, and start-ups
Application interpretation
− Roadmap for display applications
− How mature and disruptive are micro-LEDs for these applications?
− What we can expect in the near future
Market landscape, business opportunity and supply chains
− Cost analysis
− Impact on the supply chain and identify possible supply chain for micro-LED displays.
− Market forecast
− Regional efforts
− Merges, acquisitions, joint ventures, and partnerships
− Identify key players, IP owners and emerging start-ups.
Who should read it: Display makers, LED suppliers, material suppliers, R&D organizations, technology providers, OEMs/ODMs, investors, players who are exploring new opportunities.
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Table of Contents
1.1.What is the report about and who should read it?
1.2.Existing large mini-/micro-LED display announcements
1.3.Expectation of future displays
1.4.Status of OLED
1.5.Strategies of QDs in display
1.6.Characteristic comparison of different display technologies
1.7.Horizontal comparison
1.8.Why Micro-LED Displays?
1.9.Micro-LED value propositions compared with LCD, OLED, QD
1.10.Importance of identifying core value propositions
1.11.Core value propositions of µLED displays
1.12.Analysis of micro-LED's value propositions
1.13.Influence of resolution for applications
1.14.Micro-LED display types
1.15.Potential applications for micro-LED displays
1.16.Matrix analysis
1.17.Display requirements for XR applications
1.18.Application analysis: Augmented/mixed reality
1.19.Application analysis: Virtual reality
1.20.Application analysis: Large video displays
1.21.Application analysis: Televisions and monitors
1.22.Application analysis: Automotive displays
1.23.Application analysis: Mobile phones
1.24.Application analysis: Smart watches and wearables
1.25.Application analysis: Tablets and laptop
1.26.Emerging displays enabled by micro-LED technology
1.27.Micro-LED display development stage
1.28.Micro-LED application roadmap
1.29.Micro-LED display fabrication flowchart
1.30.Technologies of micro-LED displays
1.31.Complex micro-LED display design
1.32.Challenge transition for micro-display manufacturing
1.33.Current achievements of micro-LED displays
1.34.Summary of challenges for micro-LED displays
1.35.Issues with RGB micro-LED chips
1.36.Micro-LED performance summary
1.37.Full colour realization
1.38.Quantum dots for µLEDs
1.39.Regional development: Taiwan
1.40.Regional development: Mainland China
1.41.Regional development: Japan & Korea
1.42.Regional development: Europe
1.43.Regional development: US
1.44.Supply chain status
1.45.Supply chain reshuffle
1.46.Possible supply chain for micro-LED displays
1.47.Scenarios of supply chain dominance
1.48.Supply chain influenced by trade war and coronavirus
2.1.From traditional LEDs...
2.2....to Micro-LEDs
2.3.Comparisons of LEDs for displays
2.4.Mini-LEDs and Micro-LEDs
2.5.Correlations between mini-LED, micro-LED and fine pitch LED displays
2.6.From traditional LEDs to micro-LED
2.7.Display types based on micro-LEDs
2.8.Advantages of AM micro-LED micro-displays
2.9.LED size definitions
2.10.Micro-LED displays: size is an important feature
2.11.Micro LED displays: beyond the size
2.12.A better definition?
2.13.Micro-LED display panel structure
3.1.Introduction to light-emitting diodes
3.1.1.History of solid-state lighting
3.1.2.What is an LED?
3.1.3.How does an LED work?
3.1.4.Homojunction vs. heterojunction
3.1.5.LEDs by package technique
3.1.6.Typical LED and packaged LED sizes
3.1.7.Comparison between SMD and COB
3.1.8.COB for displays
3.1.9.List of global major LED companies with introduction
3.2.1.Bandgap vs. lattice constant for III-V semiconductors
3.2.2.Materials for commercial LED chips
3.2.3.Green gap
3.2.4.Epitaxy substrate
3.2.5.Wafer patterning
3.2.6.Epitaxy methods
3.2.7.Metal organic chemical vapor deposition
3.2.8.Pros and cons of MOCVD
3.2.9.Epitaxial growth requirement
3.2.10.Offering from Aixtron and Veeco
3.2.11.Veeco's offering
3.2.12.Engineered substrate
3.2.13.Wafer uniformity 1
3.2.14.Wavelength uniformity 2
3.2.15.Solutions for wafer nonuniformity
3.3.Chip manufacturing
3.3.1.LED fabrication flowchart
3.3.2.Typical RGB LED designs
3.3.3.LED chip structures
3.3.4.LED chip structure illustrations
3.3.5.Future of the LED chip structure
3.3.6.Epi-film transfer
3.3.7.Fabrication of vertical GaN-LEDs
3.4.Micro-LED Performances
3.4.1.Influence of micro-LED performance
3.4.2.EQE of micro-LED versus current density
3.4.3.Efficiency droop
3.4.4.Temperature stability
3.4.5.Bowing of wavelength shift
3.4.6.Size dependence of micro-LEDs
3.4.7.Efficiencies and requirement of RGB micro-LEDs
3.4.8.Surface recombination
3.4.9.Sidewall effect
3.4.10.Side wall passivation
3.4.11.Efficiency improvement
4.1.2.Mass transfer and assembly technologies
4.1.3.Requirements of mass transfer
4.1.4.Chiplet mass transfer types
4.2.Chiplet Mass Transfer
4.2.1.Introduction to chiplet mass assembly
4.2.2.Chiplet mass transfer scenario
4.2.3.Comparison of mass transfer technologies
4.2.4.Comparison of transfer technologies of different companies
4.2.5.Transfer yield
4.2.6.Fine pick and place
4.2.7.Overview of Elastomeric stamp
4.2.8.Transfer process flow
4.2.9.Elastomeric stamp: pros and cons
4.2.10.Stamp yield vs. defect density
4.2.11.Key technologies for micro-LED mass transfer
4.2.12.Substrate treatment
4.2.13.Kinetic control of the elastomeric stamp adhesion
4.2.14.Elastomeric stamp
4.2.15.Pitch size determination
4.2.17.µLED fabrication
4.2.18.µLEDs from sapphire substrate
4.2.19.Passive matrix displays made by micro-transfer printing
4.2.20.Passive matrix μLED display fabrication
4.2.21.Active matrix displays made by micro-transfer printing
4.2.22.Active matrix μLED display fabrication
4.2.23.Automated micro-transfer printing machinery
4.2.24.Capillary-assisted transfer printing
4.2.25.Mikro Mesa: Transfer technology
4.2.26.Mikro Mesa: Transfer flowchart
4.2.27.Mikro Mesa: Transfer stamp
4.2.28.Mikro Mesa: Transfer design target
4.2.29.PlayNitride: Mass transfer for micro-LED chips
4.2.30.PlayNitride: Mass transfer flowchart
4.2.32.ITRI: Chip fabrication
4.2.33.ITRI's mass transfer process
4.2.34.ITRI's transfer module
4.2.35.Overview of electrostatic array
4.2.36.Electrostatic/electromagnetic transfer
4.2.38.VerLASE's large area assembly platform
4.2.39.Interposer idea
4.2.41.Introduction of fluidic-assembly
4.2.42.eLux: introduction
4.2.43.Fabrication of micro-LED chip array
4.2.44.eLux's fluidic assembly
4.2.45.eLux's display prototypes
4.2.46.eLux's supply chain
4.2.47.eLux's core patent technology
4.2.48.Image quality comparison
4.2.49.SWOT analysis of eLux's technology
4.2.50.Other fluidic assembly techniques
4.2.51.Fluidic assembly (physical): overview
4.2.53.Alien's fluidic self-assembly technology
4.2.54.Self-assembly based on shape/geometry matching
4.2.55.Shape-based self-assembly
4.2.56.Fluidic assembly (electrophoretic): overview
4.2.57.Electrophoretic positioning of LEDs
4.2.58.PARC's xerographic micro-assembly Printing
4.2.59.Fluidic-assembly (surface energy): overview
4.2.60.Mechanism of surface-tension-driven fluidic assembly
4.2.61.Surface tension based fluidic assembly
4.2.62.Fluidic-assembly (magnetic): overview
4.2.63.Magnetically-assisted assembly
4.2.64.Fluidic-assembly (photoelectrochemical): overview
4.2.65.Photoelectrochemically driven fluidic-assembly
4.2.66.Fluidic-assembly (combination): overview
4.2.67.Chip mounting apparatus
4.2.68.Summary of fluidic assembly
4.2.70.Laser enabled transfer
4.2.71.Overview of laser enabled transfer
4.2.72.Laser beam requirement
4.2.73.Coherent UVtransfer 3in1 System
4.2.74.Uniqarta's parallel laser-enabled transfer technology
4.2.75.QMAT's beam-addressed release technology
4.2.76.Optovate's technology
4.2.77.Coherent's approach
4.2.78.Toray's offering
4.2.79.Visionox's achievement
4.2.80.Other chiplet mass transfer techniques
4.2.81.Korean Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM)
4.2.82.VueReal's cartridge printing technique
4.2.83.VueReal's micro printer
4.2.84.Innovasonic's technology
4.2.85.Rohinni's technology
4.2.86.Two-step micro-transfer technology
4.2.87.Micro-transfer using a stretchable film
4.2.89.Photo-polymer mass transfer
4.3.Monolithic Hybrid Integration
4.3.1.Monolithic integration
4.3.2.Flip-chip hybrid integration
4.3.3.Wafer bonding process
4.3.4.Monolithic hybrid integration structure
4.3.5.Selective transfer by selective bonding-debonding
4.3.6.Pros and cons of monolithic hybrid integration
4.3.7.Players on monolithic hybrid integration
4.4.All-In-One Transfer
4.4.1.All-in-one CMOS driving
4.4.2.Pros and cons of all-in-one CMOS driving technique
4.5.Fully Monolithic Integration
4.5.1.Introduction of fully monolithic integration
4.5.2.JBD's integration technology
4.5.3.Lumiode approach
4.5.4.Lumiode approach, process details
4.5.5.Temperature performance for the crystallization
4.5.6.Wafer from Lumiode
4.5.7.Ostendo's approach
4.5.8.Ostendo's QPI structure
4.6.GaN on Silicon
4.6.1.GaN-on-Si for various application markets
4.6.2.GaN on silicon epi types
4.6.3.Challenges of GaN-on-Silicon epitaxy
4.6.4.Value propositions of GaN-on-Si
4.6.5.GaN on sapphire vs. on silicon
4.6.6.GaN-on-Si approach
4.6.7.Cost comparison: sapphire vs silicon
4.6.8.Is GaN-on-Si the ultimate option?
4.6.9.Players working on GaN micro-LEDs on silicon
4.7.1.Comparison between 2D and 3D micro-LEDs
4.7.2.GaN epitaxy on silicon substrate
4.7.3.Aledia process flow
4.7.4.Aledia's nanowire technology
4.7.5.Front size device technology
4.7.6.Nanowires growth on silicon substrate
4.7.7.Size influence on nanowire's efficiency
4.7.8.Native EL RGB nanowires technology for small-display applications
4.7.10.Micro-display enabled by nanowires and 3D integration
4.7.11.Future of nanowire approach
4.8.Bonding and interconnection
4.8.3.Wire bonding and flip chip bonding
4.8.4.ACF bonding
4.8.5.Interconnection by resin reflow
4.8.6.Microtube interconnections
4.8.7.Microtube fabrication
4.8.8.Transfer and interconnection process by microtubes
5.1.Testing techniques
5.2.Challenges in inspection
5.3.PL vs. EL testing
5.4.EL test by Tesoro Scientific
5.5.Camera-based microscopic imaging system
5.6.Inspection solution by Toray
5.7.Instrument System's solution
5.9.TTPCON's solution
5.10.Cathodoluminescence used for testing
5.11.Hamamatsu Photonics' PL testing
5.12.Trends of testing
6.2.Defect types
6.5.Laser micro trimming
6.6.PlayNitride's SMAR Tech
6.7.Defect compensation by QDs
7.1.1.Strategies for full colour realization
7.1.2.Direct RGB or color converters?
7.1.3.RGB micro-LEDs vs. blue micro-LED + QD
7.2.Colour filters
7.2.1.Colour filters
7.2.2.Colour filter process flow: black matrix process
7.2.3.Colour filter process flow: RGB process
7.3.Optical lens synthesis
7.3.1.Full colour realized by optical lens synthesis
7.3.2.Full colour realization for projectors
7.4.Do phosphors work for micro-LED displays?
7.4.1.Introduction to phosphors
7.4.2.Requirements for phosphors in LEDs
7.4.3.Table of phosphor materials
7.4.4.Search for narrow FWHM red phosphors
7.4.5.Common and emerging red-emitting phosphors
7.4.6.Red phosphor options: TriGainTM from GE
7.4.7.Reliability of TriGain
7.4.8.Commercial progress of GE's narrowband red phosphor
7.4.9.Small sized PFS phosphor
7.4.10.Red phosphor options: Sr[LiAl3N4]:Eu2+ (SLA) red phosphor
7.4.11.Thermal stability of common RGY phosphors
7.4.12.Narrow band green phosphor
7.4.13.High performance organic phosphors
7.4.14.Toray's organic colour conversion film
7.4.15.Colour coverage of Toray's colour conversion films
7.4.16.Stability of Toray's colour conversion films
7.4.17.Response time feature of Toray's colour conversion films
7.4.18.Suppliers of phosphors
7.5.Quantum dot approach
7.5.1.Introduction to quantum dots
7.5.2.Value propositions of QDs in displays
7.5.3.Quantum dots used for micro-LED displays
7.5.4.QDs vs. phosphors: particle size
7.5.5.QDs vs. phosphors: response time
7.5.6.QDs vs. phosphors: colour tunability
7.5.7.QDs vs. phosphors: stability
7.5.8.QDs vs. phosphors: FWHM
7.5.9.Pros and cons of QD converters
7.5.10.Basic requirements of QDs for micro-LED displays
7.5.11.Trade-off between efficiency and leakage
7.5.12.Efficiency drop and red shift
7.5.13.Thickness of the QD layer for absorption
7.5.14.Display structure with QDs
7.5.15.Polarizers, short-pass filters, and other additional layers?
7.5.16.High blue absorptive QD materials
7.5.17.QD converters for µLED displays
7.5.18.Inkjet printing used for colour filters
7.5.19.Ink-jet printed QD colour converters
7.5.20.Curing methods
7.5.21.Inkjet printed QD
7.5.22.DIC's work
7.5.23.Photolithography process
7.5.24.QD photoresist fabrication
7.5.25.Photoresist approach
7.5.26.Successive patterning of red and green QD of various sizes
7.5.27.QD photoresist
7.5.28.Quantum-dots colour conversion layer
7.5.29.Full-colour emission of quantum-dot-based micro-LED display by aerosol jet technology
7.5.30.Electrohydrodynamic jet printing
7.5.31.Taiwan Nanocrystals: photo-patternable QDs for µLED displays
7.6.Quantum well approach
7.6.1.Quantum wells
8.1.Light management approach summary
8.2.Layers to optimize current distribution for better light extraction
8.3.InfiniLED's approach to increase light extraction efficiency
8.4.Methods to capture light output
8.5.Micro-catadioptric optical array for better directionality
9.1.Backplane and driving options for Micro-LED displays
9.2.Introduction to metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors
9.3.Introduction to thin film transistors
9.4.Introduction to complementary metal oxide semiconductor
9.5.Introduction to backplane
9.6.TFT materials
9.7.Pixel driving for OLED
9.8.LCD pixel structure
9.9.TFT backplane
9.10.Passive matrix addressing
9.11.Passive driving structure
9.12.Active matrix addressing
9.13.Comparison between PM and AM addressing
9.14.Transistor-micro-LED connection design
9.15.Driving for micro-LEDs
9.16.Pulse width modulation
9.17.PAM vs. PWM
9.18.Driving voltage
9.19.Driving vs. EQE
9.20.RGB driver
9.21.Active matrix micro-LEDs with LTPS TFT backplane
10.1.Image Quality Improvement
10.1.1.TFT-based image uniformity issues
10.1.2.LED binning
10.1.3.Drive design
10.1.4.Optical compensation
10.1.5.Drive compensation
10.2.Power Consumption Reduction
10.2.1.LED and TFT
10.2.2.Drive mode optimization
10.2.3.Backplane optimization
11.1.Mini-LED display configurations
11.2.What kind of role is mini-LED playing?
11.3.MiniLEDs, real hope for 2021 onward?
11.4.Trends of Mini-LED displays
12.1.Cost basics
12.2.Micro-LED cost vs. Die size
12.3.Cost assumption
12.4.Cost analysis
12.5.Economics of micro-LED: cost down paths
13.1.Forecast approaches and assumptions
13.2.Market forecast of shipment unit
13.3.2026 & 2031 application market share
13.4.Market forecast analysis
13.5.Wafer value forecast
14.1.Display cycle
14.3.Epistar & Leyard
14.4.PlayNitride & RIT Display
14.5.Konka & Chongqing Liangshan Industrial Investment, Konka & LianTronics
14.6.BOE & Rohinni
14.7.Lextar & X Display
14.8.JDI & glō, Kyocera & glō
14.9.Seoul Semiconductors & Viosys
14.10.Kulicke & Soffa and Uniqarta
15.1.1.Players discussed in this report
15.2.1.Aledia: introduction
15.2.2.Scalability to larger silicon substrate
15.2.3.Aledia's quasi-fabless business model
15.2.4.Integration process of Aledia's WireLED display
15.2.5.Wafer uniformity of nanowires
15.2.6.Colour conversion of WireLEDs
15.2.7.Interconnection options
15.2.8.Aledia's display modules
15.3.ALLOS Semiconductors
15.3.1.ALLOS Semiconductors: introduction
15.3.2.Strain management and emission uniformity
15.3.3.Strain management
15.3.4.Aoto Electronics
15.4.2.Apple's new Micro-LED chiplet architecture
15.4.3.AU Optronics
15.5.AU Optronics
15.5.1.AUO's LTPS TFT driven micro-LED display
15.6.1.Speeding up towards mini- and micro-LED displays
15.6.2.BOE mini-LED Backlight
15.6.3.BOE Mini LED Display
15.7.1.CEA-Leti: introduction
15.7.2.Demos by hybridization technology
15.7.3.Display performance
15.7.4.Process of fabricating hybridization micro-displays
15.7.5.Process of fabricating monolithic micro-displays
15.7.6.Novel approach for monolithic display fabrication
15.8.Chengdu Vistar Optoelectronics
15.8.1.Chengdu Vistar Optoelectronics
15.9.1.Introduction of EpiPix
15.9.2.EpiPix's technique
15.10.1.Introduction of glō
15.10.2.Glō's technology
15.10.3.Glō's prototypes
15.11.1.ITRI development of micro-LEDs
15.11.2.ITRI's progress
15.11.3.ITRI's offering
15.11.4.Micro-LED device characteristics
15.11.5.Reliability test
15.11.6.ITRI's MicroLED displays
15.11.7.ITRI's transparent MicroLED displays
15.12.Jade Bird Display
15.12.1.Jade Bird Display: introduction
15.12.2.Existing hybrid integration technology by flip chip technique
15.12.3.Device fabrication
15.12.4.Device structure and architecture
15.12.5.micro-LEDs for the JBD's micro-displays
15.12.6.JBD's monochromatic AM micro-LED micro-displays
15.12.7.AM micro-LED with directional emission
15.12.8.Application: 3 colour LED projector
15.12.9.High PPI AM micro-LED micro-display
15.12.10.AM micro-LED chips
15.12.11.Prototype for AR/VR
15.13.Japan Display Inc. (JDI)
15.13.1.JDI's prototype
15.14.1.Konka's efforts on Micro-LED displays
15.14.2.Konka's smart watch
15.15.1.Kyocera: high PPI micro-LED display
15.15.2.Kyocera: display design
15.16.1.Micro LED Signage
15.17.1.Lumens' micro-LED displays
15.17.2.Lumen's prototypes
15.18.1.Lumiode: introduction
15.18.2.Lumiode approach, process details
15.18.3.Lumiode's micro-LED performance
15.18.4.Lumiode's device performance
15.19.Micro Nitride
15.19.1.Micro Nitride: Introduction
15.19.2.Micro Nitride's technology
15.20.Mikro Mesa
15.20.1.About Mikro Mesa
15.20.2.Mikro Mesa's micro-LEDs
15.20.3.Mikro Mesa: Current injection
15.21.Nanjing CEC Panda FPD Technology
15.21.1.Introduction of CEC Panda
15.21.2.Micro-LED and oxide development of Panda
15.22.1.Plessey: GaN-on-Silicon
15.22.2.Plessey's display development roadmap
15.22.3.LED manufacturing
15.22.4.Pixel development
15.22.5.RGB GaN on silicon
15.22.6.Plessey's core development
15.23.1.PlayNitride: Introduction
15.23.2.Role of PlayNitride at micro-LED ecosystem
15.23.3.PlayNitride timeline
15.23.4.PlayNitride's application market
15.23.5.PixeLED display structure
15.23.6.PixeLED MatrixTM tiling display technology
15.23.7.PlayNitride: Prototypes
15.24.1.Introduction of Rohinni
15.24.3.Product benefits example
15.25.1.Samsung left LCD business
15.25.2.The Wall vs. The Window
15.25.3.LED Cinema Screen
15.25.4.Samsung's MicroLED Home Screen at CES 2021
15.25.5.Samsung's QNED
15.25.6.Price of Samsung TVs
15.25.7.RGB one chip
15.26.1.Saphlux: introduction
15.26.2.NPQD technology
15.27.1.Sharp: introduction
15.27.2.Process flow of Silicon Display
15.27.3.Display driver
15.27.4.Monolithic micro-LED array
15.27.5.Full colour realization
15.27.6.Prototypes made by Sharp
15.27.7.New spin-off
15.28.1.Sony: initial efforts
15.28.2.Sony: scalable display system
15.28.3.Sony: precise tiling
15.28.4.Sony: micro-LEDs
15.28.5.Sony: viewing angle advantages
15.28.6.Sony: active matrix driving with micro IC
15.28.7.Sony: HDR reproducibility
15.28.8.Sony: business strategy
15.29.Stan (Shenzhen) Technology
15.29.1.Stan Technology
15.30.1.The Cinema Wall
15.30.2.TFT backplane-based micro-LED displays
15.30.3.TCL CSOT Mini LED roadmap
15.31.1.Visionox's planning
15.33.VueReal: introduction
15.34.VueReal: high efficiency micro-LEDs
15.35.VueReal: Inspection
15.36.VueReal: curing
15.37.VueReal: prototypes
16.1.Colours and pixels
16.2.What is resolution?
16.3.Pixel pitch and fill factor
16.4.EQE and IQE
16.5.3D colour volume
16.6.LCD panel structure
16.7.Active matrix-LCD structure

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