Wireless Charging Market for Electric Vehicles 2023-2033: Technology, Players and Forecasts: IDTechEx

Global wireless EV charging market to reach US$6.4 billion by 2033

Wireless Charging Market for Electric Vehicles 2023-2033: Technology, Players and Forecasts

Wireless power transfer; static & dynamic wireless charging; low & high-power levels; ground assembly (GA) & vehicle assembly (VA); player profiles; pilot projects; private, commercial, and autonomous vehicle segments; granular 10-year market forecasts


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Charge your EV without plugging in
The development of wireless charging systems for electric vehicles (EVs) has slowly picked up momentum over the past decade. With wireless charging systems properly integrated into vehicles and situated strategically around a city, as well as at owners' homes, there is the promise of never needing to plug in an EV again. Drivers should simply park as usual over a coil placed on the ground or buried in it. There are a number of companies jostling to be the dominant player in the wireless EV charging space including WiTricity, Hevo, Wave, IPT Technology, Momentum Dynamics and many more. In reality, each competitor's systems are intended for different applications and there is enough business potential for everyone in this emerging market. This latest report from IDTechEx covers these players and more. It benchmarks their products and includes information on their deployments.
 
The basic principle behind the technology is electromagnetic induction. In particular, the use of resonant inductive coupling which involves adding a capacitor to each induction coil to create two resonant circuits (LC circuits) with a specific resonance frequency. A fluctuating magnetic field is created by an alternating current operating at this resonant frequency in the transmitting coil. This magnetic field then induces current in the receiving coil. In this way, the energy transfer is accomplished wirelessly. In some instances, this technology is also referred to as "magnetic resonance", and it is often contrasted to "induction" for its ability to efficiently transfer power over a range of distances and with positional and orientational offsets.
 
The wireless charging system consists of three main parts: wall box, ground assembly (GA), and vehicle assembly (VA). IDTechEx research found that about 70% of the cost is associated with the ground assembly, where electricity from the AC mains is first converted to DC using rectifiers and then converted to high frequency AC using inverters. On the vehicle side, a secondary rectifier is needed to convert the transmitted AC into DC for powering the vehicle's battery. The report addresses the ground and vehicle-based assemblies with a dive into materials and components. A TCO comparison with plug-in infrastructure alongside overall system efficiency comparisons are some of the highlights.
 
Wireless EV charging will play a key role in developing the overall network of EV charging infrastructure alongside Level 1 and 2 AC charging and Level 3 DC fast charging. It will be a complementary solution to support the growing population of zero-emission light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles. It offers tremendous opportunities for Auto OEMs, Tier 1 suppliers, and fleet operators.
 
Current state of the wireless EV charging market
Wireless charging standards had been in development for over a decade before being finalised and released in 2020. With the SAE J2954 standard now agreed for consumer EVs, the technology has the potential for widespread adoption.
The standard focuses on relatively low-power charging systems, at 3.3kW through to 11kW, with a 22kW level being worked on. This is aimed at static charging of cars at home or the office, or light trucks that charge overnight at their depot. However, installing a wireless charging system is an additional cost for the vehicle design, as a cable connector for plug-in charging is already a prerequisite. Installing wireless charging pads embedded in roads also brings an additional cost, as it includes a connection to the grid. IDTechEx believes that developments will remain split between a focus on low-cost, low-power (sub 22kW) chargers for consumer convenience and the more powerful equipment for opportunity charging. Dynamic charging with specialised roads will follow for specific applications, with shuttles as an early opportunity. Included in this report are forecasts split by power level and static or dynamic applications.
 
The publication of the standard was a very important catalyst - many of the automotive manufacturers have since been working with their suppliers evaluating, developing, and refining wireless charging technologies. Companies like Hyundai, FAW and BYD are already offering factory-fitted wireless charging hardware from key players on select vehicle models. This report includes details on their systems, other engineered retrofits and some research institutions' novel designs.
 
 
Performance of wireless EV charging systems reported by key players. Source: IDTechEx
 
Future of wireless EV charging
IDTechEx anticipates that the largest development goals for wireless charging are to increase power and efficiency whilst decreasing overall system cost. Currently, plug-in systems offer faster charging speeds at a lower cost in comparison to wireless charging.
 
Wireless EV charging will also be mission-critical to enable autonomy. Volkswagen and Hyundai have shown concepts that consist of wireless charging pads installed in parking spots. Automated valet parking could then allow their cars to find the nearest parking spot and begin charging their batteries, without any human intervention. Costs for static wireless charging units are also expected to decrease with larger volumes being manufactured post 2025.
 
Electreon sees even further into the future. The company are developing and testing wireless charging embedded in roadways, enabling vehicles to be charged while on the move. They claim that the batteries could then be smaller, and thereby overall vehicle weight and cost can be reduced. However, the infrastructure for electrifying roads is very expensive and scaling them up to several kilometres is a challenge with only a small percentage of vehicles currently on the road being able to benefit. Yet, demonstrations are underway globally with some European countries like Sweden, Germany, France, and Italy having ambitious targets to electrify thousands of kilometres of roadways.
 
Wireless charging provides a charging solution to electric vehicles without physical contacts. It will bring certain convenience by eliminating the charging plugs. But would it be powerful and efficient enough to charge all types of vehicles? What are the additional components needed? What is the state of commercialisation? Is it safe to operate? Find answers to these questions in the IDTechEx report.
 
Key Aspects
This report provides the following information:
 
Enabling technology, componentry breakdown, & performance analysis
  • Detailed summaries of scientific principles enabling wireless power transfer (WPT)
  • Comparison studies between inductive, magnetic resonance and capacitive charging.
  • Analysis of coil topologies, pad design and electrical requirements.
  • Comprehensive discussion of crucial materials used within pads including Litz copper wire coils, ferrite core structure and aluminium shielding.
  • Performance comparison of different coil topologies and those used in industry.
  • Exploration of dynamic wireless charging including infrastructure requirements, cost and scale challenges, and active projects within this space.
 
Player profiles, benchmarking and pilot project deployments
  • Primary interviews with key companies including business models, financial details, product portfolios and deployment status.
  • Benchmarking by power level and density, efficiency, air gap, and pad weight and size.
  • Summary of demonstration projects globally with key lessons learnt and classification by technology readiness level (TRL).
 
Commercial operation analysis, safety metrics and standardisation
  • Cost analysis including componentry cost, installation, and maintenance cost.
  • Battery downsizing potential with sample data and supporting case studies.
  • Opportunity charging battery health benefits.
  • Automated valet parking (AVP) and wireless V2G possibilities.
  • Detailed coverage of safety features including shielding, foreign object detection (FOD) living object protection (LOP).
  • Standardisation status and outlook
10-year market forecasts & Analysis:
  • By vehicle subsegments - private cars, commercial vans, commercial buses, commercial trucks, autonomous cars (robotaxis), autonomous shuttles, autonomous buses, and autonomous trucks
  • By power level - <=22kW (low power) and >22kW (high power, up to 500 kW)
  • By componentry - ground assembly and vehicle assembly
  • By application - off-road static and on-road dynamic
  • Global wireless electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure market value
  • Material demand for copper
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1.Report introduction
1.2.Primary Conclusions
1.3.Wireless charging addressable markets
1.4.Autonomous vehicle types explained
1.5.Plug-in EV charging has limitations
1.6.Resonant inductive coupling - the principle behind wireless EV charging
1.7.Wireless charging will use magnetic as opposed to electric fields
1.8.Enabling componentry
1.9.Benchmarking wireless coil designs
1.10.Commercially deployed wireless chargers
1.11.Key points about different coil topologies
1.12.Wireless charging overview
1.13.OEMs with wireless charging pilot projects
1.14.Wireless charging trials are underway
1.15.Wireless charging players overview
1.16.Players by market share
1.17.Player benchmarking
1.18.Cabled-chargers are not on their way out
1.19.Componentry cost and volumes
1.20.Wireless vs plug-in TCO analysis
1.21.Dynamic charging remains experimental
1.22.Dynamic charging trials underway
1.23.Wireless charging aids V2G and battery downsizing
1.24.Wireless charging SWOT analysis
1.25.Wireless charging units by vehicle segment 2021-2033
1.26.Wireless charging units by vehicle sub-segments 2021-2033
1.27.Wireless charging units by power level 2021-2033
1.28.Wireless charging units by componentry 2021-2033
1.29.Wireless charging market value 2021-2033
1.30.Global wireless electric road systems (wERS) 2021-2033
1.31.Dynamic wireless charging market value 2021-2033
2.INTRODUCTION
2.1.Plug-in EV charging has limitations
2.2.An overview of wireless charging - ditching the cable?
2.3.Wireless energy transfer overview
2.4.Wireless charging basics
2.5.Fundamentals of wireless power transfer (WPT)
2.6.System description
2.7.Wireless charging for EVs
2.8.Motivations for wireless charging
2.9.Static vs dynamic wireless charging
3.INDUCTIVE CHARGING
3.1.Inductive Charging Principles
3.1.1.Inductive charging
3.1.2.Inductive charging of EVs: parked
3.1.3.Electromagnetic induction
3.1.4.Loose coupling or tight coupling?
3.1.5.Magnetic resonance
3.1.6.Achieving resonant coupling
3.1.7.Traditional induction vs magnetic resonance
3.1.8.Quality factor
3.1.9.Achieving variable compensation
3.1.10.Continuously variable compensation
3.1.11.Skin and proximity effect
3.1.12.Typical wireless EV charging system
3.1.13.Transfer efficiency physics
3.1.14.Efficiency analysis
3.1.15.System end-to-end efficiency
3.1.16.Efficiency and losses
3.1.17.Challenges of wireless power transfer
3.2.Inductive Charging Componentry
3.2.1.Ground assembly (GA)
3.2.2.Vehicle assembly (VA)
3.2.3.Vehicle pad requirements
3.2.4.Pad components
3.2.5.Materials for coils and other components
3.2.6.Ferrite core structure and their need
3.2.7.Use of ferrite
3.2.8.Coil topologies: overview
3.2.9.Coil topologies classification
3.2.10.Coil topologies explained
3.2.11.Key points about different coil topologies
3.2.12.Features of coil topologies
3.2.13.Comparison of coil topologies
3.2.14.Comparison of coupling coefficient
3.2.15.Commercially deployed wireless chargers
3.2.16.Coil design
3.2.17.Multi-coil structures
3.2.18.Pad design
3.2.19.Pad design (continued)
3.2.20.Electromagnetic loss and cooling
3.2.21.Power electronics
3.2.22.Push for higher transmission frequency
3.2.23.Alignment
3.2.24.Air gap
3.2.25.Componentry cost and volumes
4.CAPACITIVE CHARGING
4.1.Capacitive Charging Principles
4.1.1.Introduction to capacitive charging
4.1.2.Capacitive power transfer
4.1.3.Capacitive charging architecture
4.1.4.Capacitive charging: principle
4.1.5.Inductive coils or capacitive plates?
4.1.6.Capacitive charging advantages
4.2.Capacitive Charging Challenges
4.2.1.Challenges with capacitive wireless charging
4.2.2.Electric field emission
4.2.3.Reducing arcing
4.2.4.Capacitive charging early demonstration
4.2.5.Capacitive charging summary
5.DYNAMIC WIRELESS CHARGING
5.1.Charging vehicles in motion
5.2.Why charge on the go?
5.3.Hardware for dynamic charging
5.4.Architecture for dynamic wireless charging
5.5.Wireless Electric Road System (wERS) configurations
5.6.Implementing dynamic wireless charging
5.7.Asphalt vs concrete
5.8.Shaped Magnetic Field in Resonance (SMFIR) technology for Korean Online Electric Vehicle (OLEV)
5.9.Early Qualcomm demonstration
5.10.Dynamic charging demonstrations
5.11.Dynamic charging projects overview (1)
5.12.Dynamic charging projects overview (2)
5.13.Cost and scale challenges
5.14.Cost analysis
5.15.Dynamic charging to be offered as a service
5.16.Business model to fund dynamic wireless charging
5.17.Charging technology comparisons
6.WIRELESS CHARGING PLAYERS BENCHMARKING
6.1.Overview
6.1.1.List of players
6.1.2.Wireless charging players overview
6.1.3.Players by power level
6.1.4.Efficiency and power level benchmarking
6.1.5.Pad size, weight and power
6.1.6.Players by market share
6.2.Static Wireless Charging Players
6.2.1.WiTricity
6.2.2.WiTricity technology
6.2.3.WiTricity Halo
6.2.4.WiTricity and OEM partnerships
6.2.5.WiTricity Licensing
6.2.6.Honda-WiTricity Wireless V2G
6.2.7.Momentum Dynamics / InductEV
6.2.8.Momentum Dynamics Technology
6.2.9.Momentum Dynamics system efficiency
6.2.10.Momentum Dynamics deployment
6.2.11.Momentum Dynamics deployment (contd.)
6.2.12.Momentum Dynamics and Link Transit
6.2.13.Momentum's dual power charging capabilities
6.2.14.HEVO
6.2.15.HEVO technology
6.2.16.HEVO Technology (continued)
6.2.17.HEVO power station is unique
6.2.18.HEVO ground assembly teardown
6.2.19.HEVO vehicle assembly teardown
6.2.20.HEVO componentry cost
6.2.21.HEVO to commercialise licensed technology
6.2.22.Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) Technology
6.2.23.IPT Z-Mover: wireless home charger
6.2.24.IPT Charge Bus: high power wireless charger
6.2.25.IPT Deployment
6.2.26.Plugless Power Inc.
6.2.27.Plugless Power Technology
6.2.28.Summary of Plugless Power Inc. products
6.2.29.WAVE
6.2.30.WAVE deployments
6.2.31.WAVE - AVTA case study
6.2.32.WAVE wireless charging impact on vehicle cost
6.2.33.INTIS
6.2.34.INTIS projects
6.2.35.Lumen Freedom
6.2.36.Siemens and MAHLE
6.3.Dynamic Wireless Charging Players
6.3.1.Electreon
6.3.2.Electreon technology
6.3.3.Electreon deployments
6.3.4.Electreon Charging as a Service
6.3.5.Magment
7.WIRELESS CHARGING PROJECTS
7.1.Real world demonstrations
7.2.WiCET
7.3.Why wireless eTaxi charging?
7.4.WiCET: lessons learnt
7.5.Volvo - Gothenburg Green City Zone
7.6.Retrofitting XC40s
7.7.EnergiCity
7.8.TALAKO
7.9.ZeEUS London demo
7.10.Static and semi-dynamic projects summary
7.11.Technology readiness level (TRL) scale for WPT technologies
7.12.Project classification by TRL
7.13.IDTechEx take on projects
8.WIRELESS CHARGING COMMERCIAL OPERATION ANALYSIS
8.1.Changing the end-user charging experience
8.2.Maintenance cost
8.3.Wireless vs plug-in TCO analysis
8.4.Reliability
8.5.Car park scenario
8.6.How wireless charging fits into the autonomous future
8.7.Opportunity charging overview
8.8.Opportunity charging benefits
8.9.Battery downsizing: example
8.10.Battery downsizing: capacity reduction
8.11.Battery downsizing: cost savings
8.12.Wireless V2G
9.SAFETY AND STANDARDS
9.1.Safety
9.2.Electromagnetic spectrum
9.3.Effects on the body
9.4.Electromagnetic field in wireless charging
9.5.Electromagnetic field evaluation
9.6.Shielding
9.7.Magnetic flux density variation
9.8.Foreign object detection (FOD)
9.9.Categories of FOD methods
9.10.Trade-offs and design
9.11.Interoperability requires standardisation
9.12.Standardisation bodies
9.13.Electromagnetic safety standards
9.14.Industry status
9.15.Major standards for wireless charging of EVs
9.16.Commercialisation requirements
9.17.The SAE J2954 standard
9.18.The SAE J2954 standard updates
9.19.SAE J2954/2 for heavy duty applications
9.20.SAE J2954/2 status
9.21.Automakers and Tier 1 supporting SAE standardisation
9.22.Outlook on standardisation
10.FORECASTS
10.1.Forecast methodology
10.2.Forecast assumptions
10.3.Notes on forecast
10.4.Forecasts segments
10.5.Wireless charging addressable markets
10.6.Autonomous fleet sub-segments
10.7.Wireless charging units by vehicle segment 2021-2033
10.8.Wireless charging adoption rate by vehicle sub-segment
10.9.Wireless charging units by vehicle sub-segments 2021-2033
10.10.Wireless charging units by power level 2021-2033
10.11.Wireless charging units by componentry 2021-2033
10.12.Wireless charging market value 2021-2033
10.13.Global wireless electric road systems (wERS) 2021-2033
10.14.Material demand from wERS 2021-2033
10.15.Dynamic wireless charging market value 2021-2033
10.16.Wireless charging units for cars 2021-2033
10.17.Wireless charging units for commercial vehicles 2021-2033
10.18.Wireless charging units for autonomous fleet 2021-2033
10.19.Conclusions
11.COMPANY PROFILES
11.1.EasyMile
11.2.Electreon
11.3.HEVO
11.4.IPT Technology
11.5.Momentum Dynamics
11.6.Navya
11.7.New Flyer
11.8.Plugless Power
11.9.Torc
11.10.WAVE
11.11.Waymo
11.12.WiTricity
 

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Slides 247
Forecasts to 2033
Published Oct 2022
ISBN 9781915514257
 

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