Stockage stationnaire futur de l'énergie : hydrogène, batteries, gravité, gaz, autre 2022-2042: IDTechEx

Around $1.5 trillion will be spent on stationary energy storage 2022-2042 in many new forms

Stockage stationnaire futur de l'énergie : hydrogène, batteries, gravité, gaz, autre 2022-2042

Hydrogène, ammoniac, gaz comprimé, gaz liquéfié, stockage thermique, poids de levage gravitationnels, hydroélectricité pompée avancée, batteries redox, batteries sodium-ion, autres batteries neuves, condensateurs Li-ion, etc. grilles, microréseaux, UPS, maisons solaires

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This report is essential reading for those seeking materials, device and systems opportunities. Stationary energy storage is a term that refers to the heavy stuff not the battery in your smoke detector. Think rechargeable devices, battery and non-battery, mostly providing delayed electricity. Include, where necessary, massive pulses from a dribble of input. That refers to the large battery for your solar house, the roadside solar fast charger for your electric car, the trackside unit grabbing braking energy from your electric train and shooting it back. Uninterruptible power supplies are a large emerging need, now with multipurpose storage options. Uniquely, the IDTechEx report "Future Stationary Energy Storage: Hydrogen, Batteries, Gravity, Gas, Other 2022-2042" looks at all the proliferating needs and technologies on the essential 20-year timescale ahead.
The largest market is for large industrial grids and national grids such as short-term frequency control and energy shifting through the day to match supply to load. However, a massive amount of energy storage will next be needed as they approach the tipping point of 60% wind and/ or solar because dead time and weak-input time then become extremely impactful. Traditionally, that means add pumped hydro and more recently lithium-ion batteries up to the gigawatt/ $2.4 billion level but learn the many reasons why they will be inadequate. To the rescue, two giant 500MW/5GWh compressed-air storage projects (electricity-to-electricity) are proceeding. One supplier's liquified air projects in Spain are 2GWh - around $1 billion. Chasing them, 2GWh of flow batteries over five years is a recent order.
Why the variety? What next? What improvements ahead? Learn potentially-profitable gaps in the market such as much-lower-cost storage that is acceptable in smart cities and many months' storage for solar feeble in winter, wind dead. Here, a tsunami of investment is pushing hydrogen as a solution against heavyweights invested in gravity storage by lifting weights. How promising? What else? Only this report has an up-to-date appraisal of all of these and many others in the research pipeline with 2022-2042 roadmaps and forecasts prepared by PhD level IDTechEx analysts worldwide, many of them multi-lingual.
The Executive Summary and Conclusions takes 52 pages because it presents definitions, evolving needs and technologies, roadmaps, forecasts, companies and their timelines. The Introduction then takes 39 pages to explain the types of electricity supply, location and industry involved and their changing needs. Here are the options for the smaller systems needing small size, silence, high power density etc. and larger ones focussing on levelized cost of storage and other important factors identified. Understand the significance of intermittencies from seconds to seasonal and see examples from bus chargers to managing grid power through the day, influences such as arbitrage or feed-in-tariffs. New opportunity in smart cities and under water are here.
Chapter 3 at 74 pages concerns hydrogen and ammonia storage notably for longest duration energy storage and the hydrogen economy. See zero-emission sourcing and vested interests. Both the positives and the negatives are closely examined. Chapters 4 and 5 describes competitors for longest duration. Chapter 4 with 34 pages is gravitational energy storage lifting weights under sea or ground or to erects and disassemble towers. Come back grandfather clocks, all is forgiven! On rails or mountains? Chapter 5 is pumped hydro and particularly its new variants such as marine and using heavy water for hills if you have no mountains.
Next the report looks at technologies that can deal with intermittencies of hours to weeks but probably not months. The above options will, to some extent compete with them in this space so it is getting very busy but it is the emerging massive market demand so there is room for many solutions. Chapter 6, 14 pages, deals with compressed gas, mainly compressed air with its considerable initial success but ending with the more speculative new carbon dioxide option. Chapter 7, 17 pages deals with liquid air and its first serious orders while Chapter 8, 15 pages covers thermal energy storage such as hot rocks or more-speculatively sand or aluminium, mainly focussing on the two leaders.
Chapter 9 on redox flow batteries has 10 packed pages encompassing single to double tank, vanadium to zinc, iron and other options all with very different pros and cons. Chapter 10 is yet another competitor in this space of minutes to weeks of storage - other appropriate batteries approaching readiness for stationary energy storage of minutes to hours or maybe more. Here is the very promising sodium-ion batteries potentially beating lithium-ion on cost and environmental credentials, even availability. More speculatively there are aluminium, zinc and high temperature battery options examined.
The technologies end with Chapter 11. Here are 27 pages on technologies useful for the shortest duration and largest pulses in and out and even 1MW uninterruptible power supply doubling as peak shaving. Here you see Li-ion capacitors, pseudocapacitors, new supercapacitors and superconducting flywheels. The report then ends with many company profiles in Chapter 12.
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Table of Contents
1.1.Definitions and context
1.2.Emerging needs
1.2.1.Decarbonising, securing, cost-reducing, scaling electricity supply
1.2.2.The largest stationary storage markets 2022-2042
1.2.3.Seasonal and months of electricity shortage will not be solved by storage alone
1.3.Future toolkit for stationary energy storage
1.4.Importance of hydrogen and ammonia for electricity-to-electricity storage
1.5.Potential technologies
1.5.1.Beyond hydrogen and pumped hydro by storage time and power output
1.5.2.Battery contestants compared
1.5.3.Storage contestants beyond battery and supercapacitor compared
1.6.New options compared in storage time and scale
1.7.Levelised cost of storage LCOS comparisons
1.8.Long duration energy storage coming center stage
1.9.Mature technologies pumped hydro and lithium-ion batteries in detail
1.10.Conclusions concerning lithium-based battery competitive position for stationary storage 2022-2042
1.11.Why lithium batteries will lose stationary market share in a few years
1.12.Primary conclusions for stationary storage without batteries 2021-2041: big picture
1.13.Primary conclusions for stationary storage without batteries 2021-2041: Technology choices
1.14.Progress to enduring profitability by technology 2022
1.15.Progress to enduring profitability by technology 2032
1.16.Progress to enduring profitability by technology 2042
1.17.Stationary storage market and technology roadmap 2022-2042
1.18.Possible scenario for stationary storage by eight technologies $ billion 2022-2042
1.19.All energy storage: possible scenario of dollar sales by technology in 2042
1.20.Possible other forecasts
1.20.1.Gravity, liquid air and compressed air stationary energy storage MW installed 2020-2031
1.20.2.Installed gravity, liquid air, compressed air energy storage MW to 2030
1.20.3.Forecast for installed liquid air, compressed air and gravity energy storage MWh to 2030
1.20.4.RFB, Na-ion, Zn-based, high temperature battery forecasts GWh and $ billion to 2032
1.20.5.Addressable Li-ion markets (GWh) - 2020-2032
1.20.6.Li-ion battery addressable market (GWh) by sector - 2020-2032
1.20.7.Li-ion batteries for stationary storage GWh 2032-2042
1.20.8.Global supercapacitor market by application $ billion 2021-2041 with 10 top suppliers' sales
1.21.Supercapacitor technology roadmap 2022-2042
1.22.Commercialisation timelines for RFB, Na and Zn battery companies
2.1.The increasingly important role of stationary storage
2.3.Stationary Energy Storage Markets
2.4.Here comes a massive intermittency problem
2.5.Grid stability and other functions of stationary storage
2.6.Emerging W/kg & Wh/kg are a focus for the smaller systems
2.7.Mature technologies pumped hydro and lithium-ion batteries
2.8.Some parameters and initiatives for different forms of stationary storage
2.9.Energy islands and underwater energy storage
3.2.Hydrogen generation
3.3.Storage of hydrogen
3.4.Back to electricity with hydrogen turbines
3.5.Back to electricity with fuel cells
4.1.Gravitational Energy Storage (GES)
4.2.History repeating itself?
4.3.Calculation from Gravitricity technology
4.4.Piston Based GES - Energy Stored example
4.5.GES Technology Classification
4.6.Can the GES reach the market?
4.7.Energy Vault - Technology working principle
4.8.Energy Vault - Brick Material
4.9.Energy Vault Technology and market analysis
4.10.Energy Vault Technology and market analysis
4.11.Gravitricity - Piston-based Energy storage
4.12.Gravitricity technology analysis
4.13.Underground - PHES
4.14.U-PHES - Gravity Power
4.15.U-PHES - Heindl Energy
4.16.Detailed description of Heindl Energy technology
4.17.U-PHES - Heindl Energy
4.18.Underground - PHES: Analysis
4.19.Storage using rails: ARES LLC Technology Overview
4.20.ARES Technologies: Traction Drive, Ridgeline
4.21.Technical Comparison: Traction Drive, Ridgeline
4.22.A considerable landscape footprint
4.23.ARES Market, and Technology analysis
4.24.Mountain Gravity Energy Storage (MGES): Overview
4.25.Mountain Gravity Energy Storage (MGES): Analysis
5.2.Example of not needing to turn off excess wind power through 24 hours.
5.3.Beginning to be used for longer delay/duration where possible
5.4.Use hills if you lack mountains: RheEnergise
5.5.Going small: Natel Energy
5.6.Underwater: Ocean Grazer
5.7.Under Water Energy Storage (UWES) - Analysis
6.1.CAES Historical Development
6.2.Hydrostor's 200MW/1,600MWh Broken Hill project
6.3.CAES Technologies overview
6.4.Drawbacks of CAES
6.5.Diabatic Compressed Energy Storage (D-CAES)
6.6.Huntorf D-CAES - North of Germany
6.7.McIntosh D-CAES - US Alabama
6.8.Adiabatic - Compressed Air Energy Storage (A-CAES)
6.9.A - CAES analysis
6.10.Isothermal - Compressed Air Energy Storage (I - CAES)
6.11.Main players in CAES technologies
6.12.CAES Players and Project
6.13.EnergyDome compressed CO2
7.2.LAES Players and their targets
7.3.LAES economics compared with alternatives
7.4.World's largest liquid air energy storage
7.5.Materials and liquefaction processes
7.6.LAES Historical Evolution
7.7.IDTechEx LAES conclusions
7.8.Liquid carbon dioxide energy storage
8.1.TES Technology Overview and Classification
8.2.Electric Thermal Energy Storage ETES
8.3.Operating principle
8.4.IDTechEx appraisal
8.5.Best at large capacity
8.6.ETES costing
8.7.Diurnal TES Systems - Solar Thermal Power Plants (CSP)
9.1.Redox flow batteries overview
9.2.Redox flow batteries working principle
9.3.Exploded view of VRFB
9.4.The case for RFBs: Stationary Batteries Comparison
9.5.RFB chemistries: All Vanadium (VRFB)
9.6.RFB chemistries: Zinc Bromine flow battery (ZBB) - Hybrid
9.7.RFB chemistries: Hydrogen/Bromide - Hybrid
9.8.RFB Chemistries: all Iron - Hybrid
9.9.Other RFBs: Organic Redox Flow Battery
9.10.Some significant RFB orders
10.2.Value proposition of Na-ion batteries
10.3.Zn-based batteries
10.4.Zn-based battery formats
10.5.Rechargeable zinc battery companies
10.6.Zinc-air batteries
10.7.Problems and solutions for rechargeable Zn-air batteries
10.8.Zinc 8 Energy
10.9.Zinc 8 Energy IP
10.11.Zinc bromide batteries
10.12.Eos Energy Enterprise
10.13.Eos Energy - static Zn-Br battery
10.14.Eos Energy technology
10.15.Rechargeable Zn-MnO2
10.16.Zn-ion battery - Salient Energy
10.17.Salient Energy IP
10.19.Remarks on Zn-based batteries
10.20.High-temperature batteries
10.21.NaS - NGK Insulators
10.22.Molten calcium battery - Ambri Inc
10.23.Lithium-ion photovoltaics
11.2.Typical stationary power applications of supercapacitors so far
11.3.Primary conclusions: regional differences and typical values by application
11.4.US railgun
11.5.Some supercapacitor applications targeted by manufacturers by sector
11.6.Examples of the large emerging market for 0.1 kWh to 1MWh supercapacitors
11.7.Trackside train and tram regeneration
11.8.Bombardier, Siemens, Cegelec, Greentech light rail and tram
11.9.Light rail: regen supercapacitors on train or trackside
11.10.Wayside Rail HESS: Frequency regulation, energy efficiency
11.11.Supercapacitors in the energy sector
11.13.New generation wave power and wave heave compensation
11.14.New generation tidal power
11.15.Wind power
11.16.Wind turbine protection and output smoothing
11.17.Airborne Wind Energy AWE
11.18.Utility energy storage and large UPS
11.19.The role of supercapacitors in the grid
11.20.Maxwell insight
11.21.Hybrid electric energy storage HEES: benefits
11.22.Purdue and Wisconsin Universities insight
11.23.Solid Oxide Electrolyser Cell SOEC fuel cell HEES with supercapacitor storage in grid
11.24.Example: Duke Energy Rankin PV intermittency smoothing + load shifting
11.25.Example: smoothing wind farm power output
11.26.Freqcon - utility-scale supercapacitors
11.28.Example: Ireland microgrid test bed
11.29.Borkum Municipality with a flagship project for stationary energy storage
12.1.Company Profiles
12.2.Manufacturers of supercapacitors and derivatives for stationary energy storage
12.3.Explanation of our 10 assessment columns
12.4.Number of supercapacitor manufacturers by territory 2020 and trend to 2041

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Slides 395
Forecasts to 2042
ISBN 9781913899868

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