Matériaux pour cellules et packs de batteries de véhicules électriques 2023-2033: IDTechEx

Yearly electric vehicle battery materials demand to increase over 12 fold by 2033

Matériaux pour cellules et packs de batteries de véhicules électriques 2023-2033

Demande de matériaux pour les cellules et les packs de batteries pour véhicules électriques. Densité énergétique, technologies, tendances en matière de matériaux, stratégies OEM et prévisions de marché détaillées.

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Electric vehicles (EVs) generate material demands that are very different to those historically typical of combustion engine vehicle markets. With ongoing supply chain disruption and rapidly evolving battery technology, the materials that will be in demand over the coming years will vary significantly. This report takes a deep dive into battery chemistry, energy density, and design evolution in order to determine the market demand from 2021-2033 for 27 different materials in markets such as electric cars, buses, trucks, vans, two-wheelers, three-wheelers, and microcars.
Despite trends towards increased energy density and less use of materials per vehicle, thanks to the rapidly growing EV market, the demand for EV battery materials will grow over 12-fold with market value exhibiting a 26% CAGR between 2033 and 2021.
Battery Cell Materials
Battery chemistry continues to evolve. The ultimate goal has always been towards higher energy density, but other factors such as cell cost and supply chain diversity have created demand for alternative chemistries outside of typical NMC (nickel manganese cobalt). NMC chemistries provide the highest energy density, and to further improve this and avoid the use of cobalt, have transitioned to higher nickel variants such as NMC 811 over the previous NMC 111/523. Cobalt is a more costly material and has a very geographically constrained supply with questionable mining practices, the trend to higher nickel chemistries alleviates these concerns, albeit increasing demand for nickel.
Batteries using LFP (lithium iron phosphate) chemistries nearly exited the EV market in 2018-2019 thanks to their lower energy density than NMC. However, the need for a greater variety in cell supply and the ability to reduce costs has seen a huge resurgence in LFP adoption, especially in the lower- to mid-range market segments. The energy density hit of using LFP has been somewhat offset by improvements in packing efficiency. The greater adoption of LFP mitigates some of the demand for materials such as nickel, and cobalt.
In addition to the cathode chemistry, there has also been evolution in the anode. Some have been incorporating small percentages of silicon into anodes to improve energy density, resulting in a decrease in graphite intensity in the cell. In the future we can expect to see adoption of much greater silicon contents with silicon dominant anodes gaining interest.
There are several other materials critical to the operation of a battery cell, such as the collector foils, binders, and more. This report contains forecasts for battery cell material demand to 2033 for materials including: lithium, nickel, cobalt, iron, manganese, copper, aluminum, graphite, silicon, phosphorous, electrolyte, binder, casing, conductive additive, and the separator.
Despite energy density improvements, many cell materials will exhibit rapid growth in demand with significantly differing market shares. Source: IDTechEx
Battery Pack Materials
Increasing the energy density of battery cells is important, but the construction of the pack as a whole is also a great avenue to improve battery energy density. The market has gradually reduced the amount of materials used to package the cells, increasing the ratio of the pack's weight and volume that is accounted for by the cells. The step change in this regard is the adoption of cell-to-pack designs where the modular nature is removed in favor of packing all the cells directly together. Despite the reduction in materials this causes, the rapid growth of the EV market means that many of the materials used in a battery pack will see increased demand.
The materials used to package cells into a pack have reduced by over 50% since 2015. Source: IDTechEx
Thermal management is crucial to keeping cells at an optimal operating temperature and requires components such as cold plates and coolant hoses. Thermal interface materials are required to aid in heat transfer between the cells and the cooling structure. Preventing thermal runaway from propagating between the cells and outside the battery pack requires passive fire protection materials. How these thermal management materials and components are integrated is becoming simplified, especially with adoption of cell-to-pack designs, but will remain as critical operating components with increased demand.
A key avenue for weight saving is the adoption of composites and polymers over traditional aluminum and steel. Much of the battery structure is made from aluminum, but many have adopted composite enclosure lids to reduce weight and form more complex shapes. There is a push towards multi-material battery enclosures to combine the benefits of the materials available. A key consideration for composite or polymer enclosures is EMI shielding and fire protection, this can be added later or integrated into the material itself.
This report forecasts materials for battery packs including aluminum, steel, copper, aluminum, carbon fiber reinforced polymer, glass fiber reinforced polymer, thermal interface materials, fire protection materials, electrical insulation, cold plates, and coolant hoses.
Report MetricsDetails
Historic Data2021 - 2022
CAGRThe global market for battery cell and pack materials will exceed US$230 billion by 2033 representing a CAGR of 26%.
Forecast Period2023 - 2033
Forecast Unitskg, US$
Regions CoveredWorldwide
Segments CoveredCars, buses, vans, trucks, two wheelers, three wheelers, microcars.
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Table of Contents
1.1.What's New in This Report?
1.2.Materials Considered in this Report
1.3.EV Battery Demand Market Share Forecast (GWh)
1.4.Cathode Chemistry: Nickel Up, Cobalt Down, and LFP Resurgence
1.5.Cathode Market Share for Li-ion in EVs (2015-2033)
1.6.Li-ion Timeline - Technology and Performance
1.7.Cathode Material Intensities (kg/kWh)
1.8.How Does Material Intensity Change?
1.9.The Promise of Silicon
1.10.Anode Material Demand Forecast for EVs 2021-2033 (kg)
1.11.Battery Cell Material Demand Forecast for EVs 2021-2033 (kg)
1.12.Battery Cell Material Market Value Forecast for EVs 2021-2033 (US$)
1.13.Cell Format Market Share
1.14.Gravimetric Energy Density and Cell-to-pack Ratio
1.15.Cell vs Pack Energy Density
1.16.Component Breakdown of a Battery Pack
1.17.Thermal Interface Material Trends
1.18.Battery Thermal Management Strategy Market Share
1.19.Energy Density Improvements with Composites
1.20.Insulation Materials Comparison
1.21.Electrical Interconnects: Aluminum, Copper, and Insulation Forecast 2021-2033 (kg)
1.22.Fire Protection Material Market Shares
1.23.Battery Pack Materials Forecast 2021-2033 (kg)
1.24.Battery Pack Material Market Value Forecast for EVs 2021-2033 (US$)
1.25.Total Battery Cell and Pack Materials Forecast by Material 2021-2033 (kg)
1.26.Total Battery Cell and Pack Materials Market Value Forecast 2021-2033 (US$)
2.1.Electric Vehicle Definitions
2.2.Drivetrain Specifications
2.3.Battery Materials for Electric Vehicles
2.4.Materials Considered in this Report
3.1.What is a Li-ion Battery?
3.2.Lithium Battery Chemistries
3.3.Why Lithium?
3.4.Li-ion Cathode Benchmark
3.5.Li-ion Anode Benchmark
3.6.Cathode Chemistry: Nickel Up, Cobalt Down, and LFP Resurgence
4.1.Chemistry Energy Density Comparison
4.2.Li-ion Timeline - Technology and Performance
4.3.Impact of Material Price Volatility
4.4.Impact of Material Price
4.5.BEV Battery Cell and Pack Price Forecast 2020-2033 ($/kWh)
4.6.Li-ion Batteries: Technologies, Markets and End of Life
5.1.1.Impact of Material Price Volatility
5.1.2.Raw Material Uncertainty
5.1.3.Drivers and Restraints for Battery Recycling
5.1.4.How Does Material Intensity Change?
5.1.5.Inactive Material Intensities (exc. casings)
5.2.Raw Materials
5.2.1.The Elements Used in Li-ion Batteries
5.2.2.The Li-ion Supply Chain
5.2.3.Raw Materials Critical to Li-ion
5.2.4.Raw Material Supply a Driver for Alternative Chemistries?
5.2.5.Li-ion Raw Material Geographical Distribution
5.3.Cathode Materials
5.3.1.Cathode Development
5.3.2.Cathode Material Intensities (kg/kWh)
5.3.3.Cathode Market Share for Li-ion in EVs (2015-2033)
5.3.4.Cathode Material Demand Forecast 2021-2033 (kg)
5.3.5.Price Assumptions
5.3.6.Critical Cathode Material Value Forecast 2021-2033 (US$)
5.4.Anode Materials
5.4.1.Anode Materials
5.4.2.Anode Material Demand Forecast for EVs 2021-2033 (kg)
5.4.3.Anode Material Prices
5.4.4.Anode Material Market Value Forecast for EVs 2021-2033 (US$)
5.5.Electrolytes, Separators, Binders, and Conductive Additives
5.5.1.What is in a Cell?
5.5.2.Introduction to Li-ion Electrolytes
5.5.3.Electrolyte Technology Overview
5.5.4.Introduction to Separators
5.5.5.Polyolefin Separators
5.5.6.Introduction to Binders
5.5.7.Binders - Aqueous vs Non-aqueous
5.5.8.Conductive Agents
5.5.9.Specialty Carbon Black Analysis
5.5.10.Carbon Nanotubes in Li-ion Batteries
5.5.11.Why Use Nanocarbons?
5.5.12.Key Carbon Nanotube Relationships
5.5.13.Market Expansion of MWCNTs
5.5.14.Carbon Nanotubes
5.5.15.Overview of Graphene's Potential in Energy Storage
5.5.16.Main Graphene Players - Energy Storage
5.5.17.Current Collectors in a Li-ion Battery Cell
5.5.18.Current Collector Materials
5.6.Total Battery Cell Materials Forecast
5.6.1.Battery Cell Material Demand Forecast for EVs 2021-2033 (kg)
5.6.2.Battery Cell Material Market Value Forecast for EVs 2021-2033 (US$)
6.1.1.Cell Types
6.1.2.Cell Format Market Share
6.1.3.Cell Format Comparison
6.1.4.Li-ion Batteries: from Cell to Pack
6.1.5.Pack Design
6.2.Cell-to-pack, cell-to-chassis and Large Cell Formats: Designs and Announcements
6.2.1.What is Cell-to-pack?
6.2.2.Drivers and Challenges for Cell-to-pack
6.2.3.What is Cell-to-chassis/body?
6.2.4.Servicing/ Repair and Recyclability
6.2.5.BYD Blade Cell-to-pack
6.2.6.BYD Cell-to-body
6.2.7.CATL Cell-to-pack and Cell-to-chassis
6.2.8.GM Ultium
6.2.9.Leapmotor Cell-to-chassis
6.2.10.LG Removing the Module
6.2.11.Nio Hybrid Chemistry Cell-to-pack
6.2.12.Our Next Energy: Aeris
6.2.13.Stellantis Cell-to-pack
6.2.14.SVOLT - Dragon Armor Battery
6.2.15.Tesla Cell-to-body
6.2.16.VW Cell-to-pack
6.2.17.Cell-to-pack and Cell-to-body Designs Summary
6.2.18.Gravimetric Energy Density and Cell-to-pack Ratio
6.2.19.Volumetric Energy Density and Cell-to-pack Ratio
6.2.20.Outlook for Cell-to-pack & Cell-to-body Designs
6.3.Energy Density and Material Utilization
6.3.1.Passenger Cars: Pack Energy Density (291 models)
6.3.2.Passenger Cars: Pack Energy Density Trends
6.3.3.Passenger Cars: Cell Energy Density Trends
6.3.4.Cell vs Pack Energy Density
6.3.5.Cell and Pack Energy Density Forecast 2020-2033 (Wh/kg)
6.3.6.Component Breakdown of a Battery Pack
6.3.7.Reduction of Pack Materials (kg/kWh)
7.1.Thermal Interface Materials for EV Battery Packs
7.1.1.Introduction to Thermal Interface Materials for EVs
7.1.2.TIM Pack and Module Overview
7.1.3.TIM Application - Pack and Modules
7.1.4.TIM Application by Cell Format
7.1.5.Key Properties for TIMs in EVs
7.1.6.Gap Pads in EV Batteries
7.1.7.Switching to Gap Fillers from Pads
7.1.8.Thermally Conductive Adhesives in EV Batteries
7.1.9.Material Options and Market Comparison
7.1.10.TIM Chemistry Comparison
7.1.11.The Silicone Dilemma for the Automotive Market
7.1.12.Gap Filler to Thermally Conductive Adhesives
7.1.13.Thermal Conductivity Shift
7.1.14.TCA Requirements
7.1.15.TIM Demand per Vehicle
7.1.16.TIM Forecast for EV Batteries (kg)
7.1.17.Other Applications for TIMs
7.2.Cold Plates and Coolant Hoses
7.2.1.Thermal System Architecture
7.2.2.Coolant Fluids in EVs
7.2.3.Introduction to EV Battery Thermal Management
7.2.4.Battery Thermal Management Strategy by OEM
7.2.5.Battery Thermal Management Strategy Market Share
7.2.6.Thermal Management in Cell-to-pack Designs
7.2.7.Inter-cell Heat Spreaders or Cooling Plates
7.2.8.Advanced Cold Plate Design
7.2.9.Examples of Cold Plate Design
7.2.10.DuPont - Hybrid Composite/metal Cooling Plate
7.2.11.L&L Products - Structural Adhesive to Enable a New Cold Plate Design
7.2.12.Senior Flexonics - Battery Cold Plate Materials Choice
7.2.13.Coolant Hoses for EVs
7.2.14.Coolant Hose Material
7.2.15.Alternate Hose Materials
7.2.16.Thermal Management Component Mass Forecast 2021-2033 (kg)
7.3.Battery Enclosures
7.3.1.Battery Enclosure Materials and Competition
7.3.2.From Steel to Aluminium
7.3.3.Towards Composite Enclosures?
7.3.4.Composite Enclosure EV Examples (1)
7.3.5.Composite Enclosure EV Examples (2)
7.3.6.Projects for Composite Enclosure Development (1)
7.3.7.Projects for Composite Enclosure Development (2)
7.3.8.Alternatives to Phenolic Resins
7.3.9.Are Polymers Suitable Housings?
7.3.10.Plastic Intensive Battery Pack from SABIC
7.3.11.SMC vs RTM/LCM
7.3.12.SMC for Battery Trays and Lids - LyondellBasell
7.3.13.Advanced Composites for Battery Enclosures - INEOS Composites
7.3.14.Polyamide 6-based Enclosure
7.3.15.Continental Structural Plastics - Honeycomb Technology
7.3.16.Composite Parts - TRB Lightweight Structures
7.3.17.Composites with Fire Protection
7.3.18.Other Composite Enclosure Material Suppliers (1)
7.3.19.Other Composite Enclosure Material Suppliers (2)
7.3.20.EMI Shielding for Composite Enclosures
7.3.21.Challenges with Structural Batteries
7.3.22.Adding Fire Protection to Composite Parts
7.3.23.Metal Foams for Battery Enclosures?
7.3.24.Battery Enclosure Materials Summary
7.3.25.Energy Density Improvements with Composites
7.3.26.Cost Effectiveness of Composite Enclosures
7.3.27.Battery Enclosure Material Forecasts 2021-2033 (kg)
7.4.Fire Protection Materials
7.4.1.Thermal Runaway and Fires in EVs
7.4.2.Battery Fires and Related Recalls (automotive)
7.4.3.Automotive Fire Incidents: OEMs and Causes
7.4.4.EV Fires Compared to ICEs
7.4.5.Severity of EV Fires
7.4.6.EV Fires: When Do They Happen?
7.4.8.What are Fire Protection Materials?
7.4.9.Thermally Conductive or Thermally Insulating?
7.4.10.Fire Protection Materials: Main Categories
7.4.11.Material comparison
7.4.12.Density vs Thermal Conductivity - Thermally Insulating
7.4.13.Material Market Shares
7.4.14.Fire Protection Materials Forecast 2019-2033 (kg)
7.4.15.Fire Protection Materials
7.5.Compression Pads/Foams
7.5.1.Compression Pads/foams
7.5.2.Polyurethane Compression Pads
7.5.3.Rogers Compression Pads
7.5.4.Compression and Fire Protection (1)
7.5.5.Compression and Fire Protection (2)
7.5.7.Players in Compression Pads/foams
7.5.8.Example use in EVs: Ford Mustang Mach-E
7.5.9.Compression Pads/foams Forecast 2021-2033 (kg)
7.6.Cell Electrical Insulation
7.6.1.Inter-cell Electrical Isolation
7.6.2.Films for Electrical Insulation
7.6.3.Avery Dennison - Tapes for Batteries
7.6.4.Dielectric Coatings
7.6.5.Insulation Materials Comparison
7.6.6.Insulating Cell-to-cell Foams
7.6.7.Inter-cell Electric Isolation Forecast 2021-2033 (kg)
7.7.Electrical Interconnects and Insulation
7.7.1.Introduction to Battery Interconnects
7.7.2.Aluminum vs Copper for Interconnects
7.7.3.Busbar Insulation Materials
7.7.4.Tesla Model S P85D
7.7.5.Nissan Leaf 24kWh: Cell Connection
7.7.6.Nissan Leaf 24kWh
7.7.7.BMW i3 94Ah
7.7.8.Hyundai E-GMP
7.7.9.VW ID4
7.7.10.Tesla 4680
7.7.11.Material Quantity in Battery Interconnects: kg/kWh Summary
7.7.12.Electrical Interconnects: Aluminum, Copper, and Insulation Forecast 2021-2033 (kg)
7.8.Battery Pack Materials Forecasts
7.8.1.Battery Pack Materials Forecast 2021-2033 (kg)
7.8.2.Battery Pack Materials Price Assumptions
7.8.3.Battery Pack Material Market Value Forecast for EVs 2021-2033 (US$)
8.1.Examples: Automotive
8.1.1.Audi e-tron
8.1.2.Audi e-tron GT
8.1.3.BMW i3
8.1.4.BYD Blade
8.1.5.Chevrolet Bolt
8.1.6.Faraday Future FF91
8.1.7.Ford Mustang Mach-E/Transit/F150 battery
8.1.8.Hyundai Kona
8.1.9.Hyundai E-GMP
8.1.10.Jaguar I-PACE
8.1.11.Mercedes EQS
8.1.12.MG ZS EV
8.1.13.MG Cell-to-pack
8.1.14.Rimac Technology
8.1.15.Rivian R1T
8.1.16.Tesla Model 3/Y Cylindrical NCA
8.1.17.Tesla Model 3/Y Prismatic LFP
8.1.18.Tesla Model S P85D
8.1.19.Tesla Model S Plaid
8.1.20.Tesla 4680 Pack
8.1.21.Toyota Prius PHEV
8.1.22.Toyota RAV4 PHEV
8.1.23.VW MEB Platform
8.2.Examples: Heavy duty, Commercial Vehicles, and Other Vehicles
8.2.1.Akasol (BorgWarner)
8.2.2.Microvast & REE
8.2.3.John Deere (Kreisel)
8.2.4.Romeo Power
8.2.5.Superbike Battery Holder
8.2.6.Vertical Aerospace
8.2.9.XING Mobility
9.1.EV Materials Forecast: Methodology & Assumptions
9.2.IDTechEx Model Database
9.3.Average Battery Capacity Forecast: Car, 2W, 3W, Microcar, Bus, Van, and Truck
9.4.EV Battery Demand Market Share Forecast (GWh)
9.5.Cathode Material Demand Forecast 2021-2033 (kg)
9.6.Price Assumptions
9.7.Critical Cathode Material Value Forecast 2021-2033 (US$)
9.8.Anode Material Demand Forecast for EVs 2021-2033 (kg)
9.9.Anode Material Prices
9.10.Anode Material Market Value Forecast for EVs 2021-2033 (US$)
9.11.Battery Cell Material Demand Forecast for EVs 2021-2033 (kg)
9.12.Battery Cell Material Market Value Forecast for EVs 2021-2033 (US$)
9.13.Battery Pack Materials Forecast 2021-2033 (kg)
9.14.Battery Pack Material Market Value Forecast for EVs 2021-2033 (US$)
9.15.Total Battery Cell and Pack Materials Forecast by Material 2021-2033 (kg)
9.16.Battery Pack Materials Price Assumptions
9.17.Total Battery Cell and Pack Materials Forecast by Vehicle Type 2021-2033 (kg)
9.18.Total Battery Cell and Pack Materials Market Value Forecast 2021-2033 (US$)

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Report Statistics

Slides 346
Companies 32
Forecasts to 2033
Published Apr 2023
ISBN 9781915514622

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