ยานพาหนะไฟฟ้า: บก ทะเล และอากาศ 2024-2044: IDTechEx

Electric vehicle markets across land, sea and air will generate US$3.5 trillion by 2044.

ยานพาหนะไฟฟ้า: บก ทะเล และอากาศ 2024-2044

ตลาดรถยนต์ไฟฟ้า - รถยนต์สองล้อสามล้อ, microcars, LCVs, รถบรรทุก, รถโดยสาร, เรือและเรือยานพาหนะก่อสร้างรถไฟและรถแท็กซี่อากาศ (EvTol)แบตเตอรี่ลิเธียมไอออน, เซลล์เชื้อเพลิง, ไฮบริด, มอเตอร์, ไฟฟ้าอิเล็กทรอนิกส์, ชาร์จ, 800V


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'Electric Vehicles: Land, Sea & Air 2024-2044' is IDTechEx's comprehensive electric vehicle (EV) master report covering nine EV markets broken down with over 126 forecast lines. The scope covers all vehicle volume and drivetrain breakdowns, including battery-electric, fuel cell and hybrid vehicle unit sales, battery demand (GWh) and market revenue generation (US$ billion). The report further details emerging technology trends underpinning the transition, from silicon-anode batteries to axial-flux motors and megawatt DC fast-charging.
 
Source: IDTechEx report 'Electric Vehicles Land, Sea, and Air 2024-2044'
 
Electric Cars
Electric cars represent the largest EV market over the forecast period in terms of battery demand and market value. Sales of BEV & PHEV cars surged again in 2022, reaching 10.5 million, compared to the 6.5 million the year before. Growth is set to continue in 2023 with IDTechEx predicting over 13.5 million in 2023. However, the growth of HEVs slowed significantly and in Europe, PHEV sales may decline slightly in 2023, signaling the transition towards full electrification.
 
Europe briefly overtook China as the largest electric car market in 2020, with China and Europe presenting similar sales in 2021, but 2022 saw China reassert dominance, with sales of BEV and PHEV cars at 2.5 times that of Europe.
 
The next big battleground could well be the electric pickup market in the US. A large portion of the US passenger vehicle market is accounted for by pickup trucks, but electric pickups are far behind electric cars. Now traditional OEMs and start-ups alike are starting to bring their focus here with Rivian currently leading, but soon will likely be caught by Ford with the F150, and Tesla will soon start delivering the Cybertruck.
 
Commercial Vehicles (Vans, Trucks, Buses)
Commercial vehicles are deployed in smaller volumes than automotive, but are also heavily electrifying and an important stage in global emission reduction. These markets are at an earlier stage of electrification, but making significant progress.
 
Electric buses presented an early market in China and IDTechEx predicts that due to the saturation of China's electric bus market, global sales will not surpass their 2016 peak again until 2040, with future growth fueled by replacements in China and greater adoption in Europe. Much of the European market has been underpinned by Chinese OEMs, but local supply is now starting to ramp up.
 
Electrification of light commercial vehicle (LCV) fleets is proving to be an effective way to demonstrate green credentials to customers, but also a strong total cost of ownership (TCO) reduction for fleet operators. Significant adoption has been seen from operators like Amazon and UPS. In Europe, the average van OEM has 8% of its new registrations coming from electric LCVs.
 
Tesla, Daimler, VW, and Volvo are all investing heavily in battery electric trucks. A smaller minority, Toyota & Hyundai, have chosen to focus their efforts on fuel cell trucks as the powertrain of the future. Despite issues with the efficiency and cost of hydrogen as a fuel, FCEV remains in the conversation as a technology for long haul trucking applications, dependent on the production of low-cost green hydrogen.
 
As the increasing numbers of cities and nations around the world phasing out of diesel and petrol fueled vehicles by 2030 and the cost benefit and ability of the technology to deliver the required daily duty cycles are demonstrated, the electrification of truck fleets is likely to happen rapidly; electric truck sales in 2022 were 2.2 times that of 2021, showing the start of the exponential take off.
 
MicroEVs
In China and India, as well as several other Asian regions, the two- and three-wheeler is the dominant form of personal mobility. In terms of electrification, these have typically been dominated by lead-acid battery variants. With the small battery size and low motor power required for these vehicles, they can present a relatively low cost form of electrification.
 
Electric microcars are an emerging form of transport that has proven especially popular in China, thanks to the lower range requirement needed and the ability to traverse crowded cities more easily than a full sized car.
 
The microEV segment currently dominates unit volumes, and will remain a large market in the long term, however, its battery demand will be overshadowed in the long run by the rapidly growing electric car market with much larger battery demands.
 
Electric & Hybrid Marine
The electric boating market has tripled since covid-19 emerged as more time away from the office has led to increased interest and free time for leisure boating. While low power outboard categories are typically two times more expensive than petrol equivalents, from a TCO standpoint alongside other advantages (quiet, clean etc) the business case is strong. Despite this, in higher power outboard or inboard categories, high battery prices remain a barrier, and unlike the automotive market the industry lacks governmental policy drivers, which have remained largely unchanged for a decade.
 
For larger commercial electric and hybrid vessels, since 2016 the market has started to follow an exponential trajectory as the industry is less price sensitive and maritime battery prices halved. A strong economic driver emerged in downsizing oversized engines using batteries to power peak loads in short-sea vessels such as OSVs. Ferries are the most common electric vessel as the low hanging fruit which can opportunity charge and travel shorter and consistent routes. The report provides forecasts for electric leisure boats, short sea commercial vessels and deep-sea commercial vessels.
 
Electric Vehicles in Construction
Broader commitments to climate change are spurring some countries, like Norway and Holland, or companies, like Volvo, to set their own targets for electrification of construction equipment. Health and safety concerns like the impact of diesel particulate exhaust emissions on construction worker health and noise could be equally important drivers. Much of the early vehicle development has been through retrofitting, a necessary development phase but not a sustainable strategy in the long term. OEMs need to design large EVs from scratch and manufacture at volume to realize economy of scale savings. The report forecasts that electric construction vehicles will be a market worth approximately US$154 billion by 2044, made up of a low volume of high individual value vehicles. The report explains that the largest construction machine market sectors in twenty years are Mini-Excavators, Excavators and Loaders, but electrification development is initially focused on smaller compact machines (mini-excavators/compact loaders), that have comparatively short operating hours and low energy consumption.
 
Electric Air Taxis / Electric Vertical Take-off & Landing (eVTOL)
The timeline for eVTOLs to become commercial is highly dependent on the final certification process in each geographical market. As developmental projects, these timelines should be treated somewhat skeptically; a number of companies have said they are a couple of years into what they think will be a five-year certification process, however the certification standards are not yet fully in place and for many companies there are still significant technological and funding issues that will need to be addressed before a production eVTOL can be launched. This report covers when the different players are expecting to become commercial along with market forecasts through to 2044.
 
Technology: Li-ion & Advanced Li-ion Batteries, Electric Motors, and Power Electronics
The EV market has seen large shifts in battery chemistry, with LFP nearly exiting the market, before returning in a big way, especially within China. As they start to reach their performance limits and as environmental and supply risks are highlighted, improvements and alternatives to Li-ion batteries will become increasingly important. This report summarizes trends and developments in advanced battery technologies, including to Li-ion cell designs, silicon anodes, solid-state, and cell-to-pack/cell-to-chassis.
 
Electric motor technology has rapidly improved with the adoption of EVs and now sustainability and material sourcing is becoming an increasing focus. Several OEMs and tier 1s have adopted permanent magnet free designs in order to reduce costs and reliance on rare earths. The report covers motor technology, power and torque density, and materials utilization. Forecasts for motor type market share are included, addressing permanent magnets, induction, wound rotor, and other rare earth free designs. Axial flux and in-wheel motors are also summarized along with their market progress.
 
Developments in automotive power electronics including inverters, onboard chargers, and DC-DC converters, can improve powertrain efficiency, allowing for either battery pack capacity reduction or improved range. One key transition is to silicon carbide MOSFETs and high voltage vehicle platforms at or above 800V. Tesla were the first to market in 2018, but many have now also deployed SiC, or plan to in future. The transition is presenting fresh challenges for power module package materials, with this report considering the outlook for 800V platform voltages and adoption of SiC and GaN inverters. It further discusses the impact on packaging materials like wirebonds, die-attach, and substrates.
 
Charging Infrastructure
Adequate charging infrastructure is key to EV adoption across the vehicle segments and deployment will be driven by tens of millions of BEV & PHEVs being deployed each year. This report covers the technology behind charging infrastructure with breakdowns for AC and DC charging by power, along with chapters on alternative technologies like battery swapping and wireless charging.
Key aspects
This report provides an extensive overview of electric vehicle markets across land, sea, and air.
Each chapter includes:
  • Historic market performance
  • Vehicle specifications
  • Players
  • Technologies
  • Market forecasts in units, battery demand (GWh), and value (US$).
 
The vehicle categories covered are:
Electric Cars
Electric Trucks
Electric Light Commercial Vehicles (eLCVs)
Electric Buses
Micro EVs (two-wheelers, three-wheelers, microcars)
Electric Boats & Ships
Electric Construction Vehicles
Electric Trains
Electric Air Taxis (eVTOL)
 
Key technologies are also covered, looking at the major technology trends in:
  • Li-ion batteries
  • Electric motors
  • Power electronics
Report MetricsDetails
Historic Data2015 - 2022
CAGRGlobal market value for electric vehicles experiences 8.7% CAGR from 2022-2044.
Forecast Period2023 - 2044
Forecast UnitsUnits, kWh, US$
Regions CoveredWorldwide, China, Europe, United States
Segments CoveredElectric Cars, Electric Trucks, Electric Light Commercial Vehicles (eLCVs), Electric Buses, Micro EVs (two-wheelers, three-wheelers, microcars), Electric Boats & Ships, Electric Construction Vehicles, Electric Trains, Electric Air Taxis (eVTOL).
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Table of Contents
1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1.Electric Vehicles Land, Sea, Air - Unit Sales 2021-2044
1.2.Electric Vehicles Land, Sea, Air - Battery Demand GWh 2021-2044
1.3.Electric Vehicles Land, Sea, Air - Market Size US$ 2021-2044
1.4.Global Electric Car Sales by Powertrain - BEV, PHEV, HEV, FCEV 2015-2044
1.5.Regional Electric Car Performance in H1 2023
1.6.Hybrid Car Sales Peak
1.7.Growth and Stagnation of Fuel Cell Passenger Cars
1.8.OEM ICE Phase Out and BEV Production Targets
1.9.Cathode Market Share for Li-ion in EVs (2015-2033)
1.10.Motor Type Market Share Forecast
1.11.800V Platform Discussion & Outlook
1.12.6 key market trends in EV charging
1.13.Truck Model Availability Growing
1.14.Medium and Heavy Trucks - Model Overview
1.15.Historic Electric LCV Sales in Europe
1.16.Historic Electric LCV Sales in China
1.17.10Y historic sales of e-buses in China 2012 - 2022
1.18.Global two-wheeler markets snapshot
1.19.China and India: major three-wheeler markets
1.20.Microcars: the goldilocks of urban EVs
1.21.Marine battery market history 2019-2025 by subsector: ferry, cruise, ro-ro, cargo, OSV, tug, other
1.22.Key Construction Machine Types for Electrification
1.23.Battery Requirements in Construction: Sizing
1.24.Electric Trains Introduction
1.25.Six Key Findings for Electric Trains
1.26.eVTOL Architectures
1.27.When will the First eVTOL Air Taxis Launch?
2.ELECTRIC CARS
2.1.Global Car Sales by Powertrain 2015-2044
2.2.Global Electric Car Sales by Powertrain - BEV, PHEV, HEV, FCEV 2015-2044
2.3.Global Electric Car Battery Demand by Powertrain - BEV, PHEV, HEV, FCEV 2015-2044
2.4.Global Electric Car Market Value by Powertrain - BEV, PHEV, HEV, FCEV 2015-2044
2.5.Regional Electric Car Sales 2011-2022
2.6.Regional Electric Car Performance in H1 2023
2.7.China Purchase Subsidies Extended
2.8.EU Emissions and Targets
2.9.US Emissions Standards
2.10.Electrified OEMs Have High Market Caps
2.11.OEM Sales Global Sales Shares 2015-2023
2.12.COP26 Transport Targets
2.13.COP27 Transport Targets
2.14.Powertrain Tailpipe Emissions Comparison
2.15.Grid Emissions (1)
2.16.Grid Emissions (2)
2.17.Cars - Total Cost of Ownership
2.18.Hybrid Car Sales Peak
2.19.Hybrid Car (HEV) Regional Sales 2015-2022
2.20.Fuel Cell Car Models
2.21.Honda to Re-enter FCEV the Market
2.22.Growth and Stagnation of Fuel Cell Passenger Cars
2.23.Hydrogen: Emissions & Cost Issues
2.24.Fuel Cell Car Forecasts
2.25.Chip Shortages - 2020 to 2023
2.26.Chip Shortages - Automaker Reactions
2.27.Chip Shortages - Electric Vehicles
2.28.Electric Pickups - The Big US Opportunity
2.29.Electric Pickup Release Dates
2.30.Electric Pickups Battery, Motor & Towing Benchmark
2.31.Electric Pickup Model Pricing
2.32.Tech Companies Entering the EV Market (1)
2.33.Tech Companies Entering the EV Market (2)
2.34.OEM ICE Phase Out and BEV Production Targets
3.TECHNOLOGY TRENDS - LI-ION BATTERY CELLS & PACKS, MOTORS, 800V, HIGH VOLTAGE CABLING & MORE
3.1.Lithium Battery Chemistries
3.2.Types of Lithium Battery
3.3.Average Car Battery Capacity 2015-2044
3.4.Battery Technology Comparison
3.5.The Promise of Silicon
3.6.Silicon Anode Material Opportunities
3.7.Silicon Anode - Company Benchmarking
3.8.Classifications of solid-state electrolytes
3.9.Liquid vs. solid-state batteries
3.10.Comparison of Solid-state Electrolyte Systems
3.11.Solid state battery collaborations /investment by Automotive OEMs
3.12.Li-ion Technology Diversification
3.13.Cathode Market Share for Li-ion in EVs (2015-2033)
3.14.Li-ion Timeline - Technology and Performance
3.15.IDTechEx Li-ion Battery Timeline
3.16.Li-ion Batteries: from Cell to Pack
3.17.Cell Format Market Share
3.18.What is Cell-to-pack?
3.19.Drivers and Challenges for Cell-to-pack
3.20.What is Cell-to-chassis/body?
3.21.Gravimetric Energy Density and Cell-to-pack Ratio
3.22.Outlook for Cell-to-pack & Cell-to-body Designs
3.23.Summary of Traction Motor Types
3.24.Electric Motor Type Market Share by Vehicle
3.25.China's Control of Rare-Earths
3.26.Europe's Move to Magnet Free Designs
3.27.OEM & Tier 1 Approaches to Eliminate Rare Earths
3.28.Axial Flux Motors
3.29.Axial Flux Motors Entering the EV Market
3.30.Benchmark of Commercial Axial Flux Motors
3.31.In-wheel Motors
3.32.Examples of Vehicles with In-wheel Motors
3.33.Motor Type Market Share Forecast
3.34.Power Electronics Use in Electric Vehicles
3.35.Benchmarking Silicon, Silicon Carbide & Gallium Nitride Semiconductors
3.36.Traditional EV Inverter
3.37.Discretes & Modules
3.38.Electric Vehicle Inverter Benchmarking
3.39.SiC Impact on the Inverter Package
3.40.Power Electronics Material Evolution
3.41.SiC Drives 800V Platforms
3.42.Emerging 800V Platforms & SiC Inverters
3.43.800V Model Announcements in China (2022)
3.44.800V Platform Discussion & Outlook
3.45.Copper vs Aluminum Cables
3.46.Aluminium HV Cabling Disadvantages
3.47.Tesla Model 3 Al Cable
3.48.Al HV Cables Market Adoption
3.49.The Ultimate Concept EV: 1200km Range
4.CHARGING INFRASTRUCTURE
4.1.1.EV charging experiencing continued growth
4.1.2.Overview of charging levels
4.1.3.6 key market trends in EV charging
4.1.4.DC fast charging levels
4.1.5.Public charging pain points still exist
4.1.6.Megawatt charging: a new segment of high power DC fast charging
4.1.7.Challenges in implementing MCS
4.1.8.Tesla MW charging
4.1.9.Destination DC charging: a new product class for EVSE manufacturers
4.1.10.Mobile EV chargers
4.1.11.Global charging infrastructure installations
4.1.12.Connector standards: a competition for global acceptance
4.1.13.EV charging is a crowded market
4.1.14.AC Charging installations by power class
4.1.15.DC charging installation by power class
4.1.16.Alternate charging strategies emerging
4.1.17.EV charging: conclusions
4.2.Wireless Charging
4.2.1.Introduction to wireless charging for EVs
4.2.2.Resonant inductive coupling - the principle behind wireless EV charging
4.2.3.Enabling componentry
4.2.4.Wireless charging addressable markets
4.2.5.OEMs with wireless charging pilot projects
4.2.6.Wireless charging players overview
4.2.7.Cabled-chargers are not on their way out
4.2.8.Barriers: componentry cost and volumes
4.2.9.Dynamic charging trials underway
4.2.10.Wireless charging aids V2G and battery downsizing
4.2.11.Wireless charging for EVs: conclusions
4.3.Battery Swapping
4.3.1.Battery swapping: charge it or change it?
4.3.2.Battery swapping pathways for different types of EVs
4.3.3.Car battery swapping process overview
4.3.4.Swapping is more expensive than AC or DC charging
4.3.5.Battery as a Service (BaaS) business model - a disintegrated approach
4.3.6.Two and three-wheelers use small capacity, self-service swap models
4.3.7.Commercial heavy duty battery swapping is in its early stages
4.3.8.China's heavy duty swapping industry
4.3.9.Battery swapping stations can act as grid support units and enable battery recycling
4.3.10.China dominates swapping globally
4.3.11.BSS deployment on the rise
4.3.12.Battery swapping benefits and scepticism
4.3.13.Battery swapping for EVs: conclusions
5.ELECTRIC TRUCKS
5.1.Truck Classifications
5.2.Road Freight Market
5.3.Electric Trucks: Drivers and Barriers
5.4.Global CO2 Road Freight Emissions
5.5.Medium and Heavy Trucks - Model Overview
5.6.Truck Model Availability Growing
5.7.Heavy-duty: BEV or Fuel Cell?
5.8.MW Charging Difficulty for BEVs
5.9.List of MW charging projects
5.10.European Electric Truck Sales 2016-2022
5.11.Addressable Truck Market: Europe Market Share 2022
5.12.Medium and Heavy-Duty Truck Sales in Europe
5.13.Main Truck Brands in the US
5.14.Addressable Truck Market: U.S. Market Share 2022
5.15.Medium and Heavy-Duty Truck Sales in the U.S.
5.16.US Electric Truck Sales 2016-2022
5.17.US Electric Trucks Manufacturers
5.18.Electric Heavy-Duty Truck Market in China
5.19.China Heavy-Duty Electric Truck Sales
5.20.Electric Heavy-Duty Truck Sales in China H1 2023
5.21.Addressable Truck Market: China HDT Market Share 2022
5.22.Medium and Heavy-Duty Truck Sales in China
5.23.Recovery from Coronavirus: Addressable Truck Market
5.24.Truck OEMs Commit to Electrification
5.25.Fuel Cells and Trucks Today
5.26.Fuel Cell Manufacturers Collaboration on US FC-Trucks
5.27.Fuel Cell Truck Example Specifications
5.28.Cost of H2 Trucks vs Battery Electric
5.29.Barriers to FC truck adoption
5.30.Electric Trucks - Unit Sales
5.31.Electric Trucks - Battery Demand GWh
5.32.Electric Trucks - Market Size $ billion
6.ELECTRIC LIGHT COMMERCIAL VEHICLES (LCVS)
6.1.Introduction to Electric LCVs
6.2.LCV Definition
6.3.Electric LCVs: Drivers and Barriers
6.4.Historic Electric LCV Sales in Europe
6.5.Electric LCV Share by Manufacturer in Europe
6.6.Electric LCV Sales by Model in Europe
6.7.Specifications of Popular Electric LCVs in Europe
6.8.Electric LCV Sales by European Country 2018-2022
6.9.Historic Electric LCV Sales in China
6.10.Specifications of Popular Electric LCVs in China
6.11.Electric and Diesel LCV Cost Parity
6.12.Small eLCV Break-Even: Purchase Grant
6.13.LCV Range Requirement
6.14.LCV Range Requirement
6.15.Example Fuel Cell LCV Specifications
6.16.Stellantis Fuel Cell LCVs
6.17.Groupe Renault
6.18.IDTechEx Outlook for eLCVs
6.19.Electric LCV - Unit Sales
6.20.Electric LCV - Battery Demand GWh
6.21.Electric LCV - Market Size $ billion
7.ELECTRIC BUSES
7.1.Municipal buses: double, single, double-single
7.2.BEV & PHEV Bus Options
7.3.10Y historic sales of e-buses in China 2012 - 2022
7.4.18 electric bus OEMs & market share in China
7.5.Average battery kWh/bus by region and battery chemistry trends
7.6.Bluebus solid-state batteries
7.7.Electric Bus Motor Types
7.8.Typical bus model specs by region
7.9.China underpins electric bus sales in Europe
7.10.Electric, ICE & other bus sales in the US
7.11.Fleet vehicles require high power charging
7.12.Fuel Cell Buses
7.13.30 years of FC-Bus Development
7.14.Main Advantages / Disadvantages of Fuel Cell Buses
7.15.Fuel Cell Bus Schematic
7.16.Fuel Cell Bus Example Specifications
7.17.Electric bus unit sales by BEV, PHEV, FCEV 2020 - 2044
7.18.Electric bus battery demand BEV, PHEV, FCEV 2020 - 2044 GWh
7.19.Electric Bus Market Value BEV, PHEV, FCEV 2020-2044 (US$ billion)
8.MICRO EVS
8.1.Introduction to Micro EVs
8.2.Micro EV types
8.3.Micro EV characteristics
8.4.Comparison of micro EV segments
8.5.Micro EVs are sustainable
8.6.Global two-wheeler markets snapshot
8.7.Asia home to major electric two-wheeler markets
8.8.India electric two- and three- wheeler market growth
8.9.Growth drivers of electric two wheelers in India
8.10.Indian electric two-wheeler OEMs
8.11.China electric two-wheeler market history
8.12.ASEAN markets
8.13.Historic sales in Southeast Asia
8.14.Electric two-wheeler market shares in ASEAN countries
8.15.ASEAN electric two-wheeler wheeler brands
8.16.Electric mopeds and motorcycles in Europe
8.17.The US two-wheeler market
8.18.US electric two-wheelers
8.19.The role of three-wheelers
8.20.China and India: major three-wheeler markets
8.21.Examples of Indian E3W models
8.22.Chinese three-wheeler types
8.23.Examples of Chinese E3W models
8.24.Three wheelers outside China and India
8.25.Microcars: the goldilocks of urban EVs
8.26.Examples of microcars by region
8.27.Unregistered low speed EVs in China
8.28.Average battery capacities of microcars
8.29.Electric quadricycle sales in EU
8.30.Micro EV forecast 2021-2044 (unit sales)
8.31.Li-ion vs lead-acid battery demand for micro EVs 2021-2044 (GWh)
8.32.Micro EV - a $187 billion market opportunity
9.ELECTRIC & HYBRID MARINE
9.1.Summary of Marine Markets
9.2.Summary of market drivers for electric & hybrid marine
9.3.Marine battery market history 2019-2025 by subsector: ferry, cruise, ro-ro, cargo, OSV, tug, other
9.4.Why marine batteries are unique
9.5.Corvus Energy delivers over 200MWh/year
9.6.Policy & Emissions Regulation Summary
9.7.Marine CO2 Emissions and Targets
9.8.Solutions for Greenhouse Gas Regulations
9.9.Overview of e-fuels
9.10.The need for alternative fuels & fuel cells
9.11.Ferries are well suited for electrification
9.12.Electric ferry adoption in Norway 2015-2030
9.13.Types of offshore support vessel (OSV)
9.14.OSV case study & typical specs
9.15.Cruise ship markets dominated by a few players
9.16.Cruise ships during the pandemic
9.17.Electric tanker case studies in Norway & Japan
9.18.Leisure & recreational electric boat markets
9.19.Boat propulsion types & trend towards outboards
9.20.Annual number of electric vessels 2020-2044: Ferry, Cruise, Ro-Ro, Cargo, OSV, Tug, Other
9.21.Battery demand from electric vessels (GWh) 2020-2044: Ferry, Cruise, Ro-Ro, Cargo, OSV, Tug, Other
9.22.Market size of marine battery systems 2020-2044 ($ bn): Ferry, Cruise, Ro-Ro, Cargo, OSV, Tug, Other
10.ELECTRIC VEHICLES FOR CONSTRUCTION
10.1.1.Construction Vehicles
10.1.2.Construction Vehicles - Key Findings
10.1.3.Key Construction Machine Types for Electrification
10.1.4.Construction Market Continues to Bounce Back
10.1.5.Electrification Activity of Major Construction OEMs (1)
10.1.6.Electrification Activity of Major Construction OEMs (2)
10.1.7.Advantages of / Barriers to Machine Electrification
10.1.8.TCO Drivers for Electric Construction Vehicles
10.1.9.Retrofitting vs. OEM in-housing (1)
10.1.10.Retrofitting vs. OEM in-housing (2)
10.1.11.Chinese OEMs Large Battery Excavators
10.1.12.Dual Gun Ultra-Fast Charging
10.1.13.Battery Requirements in Construction: Performance
10.1.14.Battery Requirements in Construction: Sizing
10.1.15.Battery Requirements in Construction: Pricing
10.1.16.Key Performance Attributes For Construction Battery Systems
10.1.17.Cell Chemistry in Construction
10.1.18.Regional Cell Chemistry Choices
10.1.19.Construction Equipment Electrification Opportunities (1)
10.1.20.Construction Equipment Electrification Opportunities (2)
10.1.21.Global Construction EV Sales Forecast by Machine Type
10.1.22.EV Construction Machines Battery Demand by Machine Type (GWh)
10.1.23.EV Construction Machines Market Size by Machine Type (US$ Billions)
10.2.Electric Trains
10.2.1.Electric Trains Introduction
10.2.2.Drivers for Zero-emission Rail
10.2.3.Barriers for Rail Electrification
10.2.4.Overview of Train Types
10.2.5.Six Key Findings for Electric Trains
10.2.6.Multiple Unit Trains
10.2.7.BEV Multiple Unit Orders 2022-2026 & Supplier Market Shares
10.2.8.Battery Capacity of BEV Multiple Units, Shunters, Locomotives 2022-2043 (kWh/ unit)
10.2.9.Key Performance Indicators for Train Battery Systems
10.2.10.Fuel Cell Train Overview
10.2.11.Production Model FC multiple unit Specifications
10.2.12.FC Locomotives Summary
10.2.13.FCEV & BEV Multiple Units, Shunters, Locomotives 2022-2044 (Unit Sales)
10.2.14.Battery Demand for FCEV & BEV Multiple Units, Shunters, Locomotives 2022-2044 (GWh)
10.2.15.Fuel Cell Demand from Multiple Units, Shunters, Locomotives 2022-2044 (GW)
10.2.16.FCEV & BEV Multiple Units, Shunters, Locomotives 2022-2044 (US$ bn)
11.ELECTRIC AIR TAXIS (EVTOL)
11.1.Flying Cars: The Dream Becoming A Reality
11.2.What Is An eVTOL Aircraft?
11.3.eVTOL Architectures
11.4.Why eVTOL Aircraft?
11.5.eVTOL Applications
11.6.eVTOL Getting Off The Ground
11.7.Conclusions on Air Taxi Time Saving
11.8.Conclusions on Air Taxi Time Saving
11.9.Huge Companies Are Already Investing In eVTOL
11.10.Air mobility funding
11.11.When will the First eVTOL Air Taxis Launch?
11.12.eVTOL Multicopter / Rotorcraft
11.13.eVTOL Lift and Cruise
11.14.eVTOL Vectored Thrust: Tiltwing
11.15.eVTOL Vectored Thrust: Tiltrotor
11.16.Air Taxi Services
11.17.eVTOL As An Urban Mass Mobility Solution?
11.18.Where Is The eVTOL Air Taxi Advantage?
11.19.The Value of Autonomous Flight
11.20.eVTOL Battery Requirements
11.21.eVTOL Motor Requirements
11.22.eVTOL Composite Material Requirements
11.23.eVTOL Infrastructure Requirements
11.24.Forecast Summary
11.25.eVTOL Air Taxi Sales Forecast (Units)
11.26.eVTOL Air Taxi Battery Demand Forecast (GWh)
11.27.eVTOL Air Taxi Market Revenue Forecast (US$ billion)
12.MARKET FORECASTS
12.1.Long-term Forecasting of Technologies
12.2.Forecast Methodology
12.3.Forecast Methodology & FAQ
12.4.Forecast Assumptions
12.5.Global Car Sales by Powertrain 2015-2044
12.6.Global Electric Car Sales by Powertrain - BEV, PHEV, HEV, FCEV 2015-2044
12.7.Global Electric Car Battery Demand by Powertrain - BEV, PHEV, HEV, FCEV 2015-2044
12.8.Global Electric Car Market Value by Powertrain - BEV, PHEV, HEV, FCEV 2015-2044
12.9.Electric Trucks - Unit Sales
12.10.Electric Trucks - Battery Demand GWh
12.11.Electric Trucks - Market Size $ billion
12.12.Electric LCV - Unit Sales
12.13.Electric LCV - Battery Demand GWh
12.14.Electric LCV - Market Size $ billion
12.15.Electric bus unit sales by BEV, PHEV, FCEV 2020 - 2044
12.16.Electric bus battery demand BEV, PHEV, FCEV 2020 - 2044 GWh
12.17.Electric Bus Market Value BEV, PHEV, FCEV 2020-2044 (US$ billion)
12.18.Micro EV forecast 2021-2044 (unit sales)
12.19.Li-ion vs lead-acid battery demand for micro EVs 2021-2044 (GWh)
12.20.Micro EV - a $187 billion market opportunity
12.21.Annual number of electric vessels 2020-2044: Ferry, Cruise, Ro-Ro, Cargo, OSV, Tug, Other
12.22.Battery demand from electric vessels (GWh) 2020-2044: Ferry, Cruise, Ro-Ro, Cargo, OSV, Tug, Other
12.23.Market size of marine battery systems 2020-2044 ($ bn): Ferry, Cruise, Ro-Ro, Cargo, OSV, Tug, Other
12.24.Global Construction EV Sales Forecast by Machine Type
12.25.EV Construction Machines Battery Demand by Machine Type (GWh)
12.26.EV Construction Machines Market Size by Machine Type (US$ Billions)
12.27.FCEV & BEV Multiple Units, Shunters, Locomotives 2022-2044 (Unit Sales)
12.28.Battery Demand for FCEV & BEV Multiple Units, Shunters, Locomotives 2022-2044 (GWh)
12.29.Fuel Cell Demand from Multiple Units, Shunters, Locomotives 2022-2044 (GW)
12.30.FCEV & BEV Multiple Units, Shunters, Locomotives 2022-2044 (US$ bn)
12.31.eVTOL Air Taxi Sales Forecast (Units)
12.32.eVTOL Air Taxi Battery Demand Forecast (GWh)
12.33.eVTOL Air Taxi Market Revenue Forecast (US$ billion)
12.34.Electric Vehicles Land, Sea, Air - Unit Sales 2021-2044
12.35.Electric Vehicles Land, Sea, Air - Battery Demand GWh 2021-2044
12.36.Electric Vehicles Land, Sea, Air - Market Size US$ 2021-2044
 

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Report Statistics

Slides 407
Forecasts to 2044
Published Sep 2023
ISBN 9781915514912
 

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